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標題: 熱、乙醇、氣變包裝處理對‘富有’甜柿低溫貯藏生理障礙及品質之影響
Effects of Heat, Ethanol, and Modified Atmosphere Package on the Physiological Disorder and Quality of 'Fuyu' Persimmon (Disopyros kaki L.) Fruits during Cold Storage
作者: 黃思齊
Huang, Szu-Chi
關鍵字: 富有柿
出版社: 園藝學系
摘要: ‘富有’甜柿果實在經低溫貯藏後會產生褐化、軟化等徵狀,此為縮短長期貯藏壽命之主要原因。本試驗為確立‘富有’甜柿之最適的貯藏前或貯藏後處理方式,探討果實褐化之發生因子,期能更有效的抑制果實之褐化及軟化,以增加柿果貯藏壽命,達到延長柿果供貨期之目的。 注射乙醇處理對於‘富有’柿果在1℃貯藏後不具維持品質的效果,且在貯藏1.5及2個月後,其品質甚至低於對照組。 不同採收期之‘富有’柿果在1℃貯藏前或貯藏後以53℃-50分鐘溫湯處理,在回溫後皆能顯著抑制果實之呼吸率、乙烯釋放率、ACC含量、ACC氧化酵素,維持具商品價值之硬度及色澤;降低多酚氧化酵素、過氧化酵素之活性及總酚類化合物之含量,有效抑制果實褐化的發生。雖然低溫貯藏前後溫湯處理皆有抑制軟化及褐化效果,但以貯藏前處理較佳。貯藏前溫湯及熱風處理之比較,取最佳效果的組別,以溫湯53℃-50分鐘及熱風51℃-8小時,進行各項品質調查及分析,在1℃貯藏貯藏2個月於25℃下回溫3天後回溫3天後,仍以溫湯53℃-50分鐘有顯著最佳之抑制‘富有’甜柿軟化的效果。 不同聚乙烯包裝層數及填充氮氣處理,皆能顯著增加袋內二氧化碳濃度和降低氧氣濃度,而袋內乙烯濃度變化較無規則,但以包裝2層者有最高的乙烯濃度,如貯藏1.5個月袋內達0.375ppm,至貯藏2個月則降至0.159ppm。 ‘富有’甜柿經1-MCP、53℃-50分鐘溫湯處理及1℃貯藏2個月後,各階段損失率如下:溫湯處理後為2.89%,貯藏2個月後為0.81%,回溫2天後為5.46%,扣除損失率後總可銷售率達90.84%。若以10公噸之8A柿果計算,貯藏費用支出共93,778元,而價差多得利潤為248,356元,淨利潤達154,578元。由成本分析來看,溫湯53℃-50分鐘處理不僅可有效抑制經低溫貯藏後‘富有’甜柿之軟化及褐化,維持良好的品質,達到高比例的可販售性,亦能有相當不錯的收益,因此,將‘富有’甜柿施以53℃-50分鐘溫湯處理,再於1℃下貯藏2個月,具有實際的應用性。
Browning and softening are the main reasons of shortening the long term storage of ‘Fuyu' persimmon fruits stored in low temperature. The objectives of this experiment are to find out effective method to inhibit browning and softening of fruits, to increase storage period and extend supply stage, to establish the proper treatment of before or after storage, and to investigate the browning reason of ‘Fuyu' persimmon fruits. The ‘Fuyu' persimmon could not maintain its qualities after ethanol treatment, and the quality is worse than its control group after stored at 1℃ for 1.5 to 2 months. Before or after stored at 1℃, hot-water treatment at 53℃-50mins can conspicuously inhibit fruits's respiration rate, ethylene production, ACC content, and ACC oxidase activity, maintain commercial firmness and color, reduce polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase activity, total phenolic compounds content, be of advantage to inhibit the browning on peel. Although, hot-water treatment, practiced before or after cold storage, can be effective inhibition of browning and softening, however the best effective is treatment before cold storage. As hot-water treatment, treatment with hot-air at 51℃-8hrs before storage is also effective to control softening and browning. That ‘Fuyu' persimmon fruits held at 53℃-50mins with hot-water can be stored at 1℃ for 2 months and have 3 days shelf-life at 25℃. Results of the wrapping of different layers and filling N2 in polyethylene bag will conspicuously increase carbon dioxide and reduce oxygen concentration, and change in ethylene concentration was irregular, however package with 2 layers had highest ethylene concentration, i.e. storage period up to 1.5 months reaches 0.375ppm, reduces to 0.159ppm when storage is 2 months period. The postharvest loss rate after application of 1-MCP and 53℃-50min hot-water treatment is 2.89% and after stored at 1℃ for 2 months is 0.81% and then transferred to 25℃ for 2 days is 5.46%. After deducting total loss rate and the rate can be sold is 90.84%. Total expenses of treatment and storage is NT$93,778 and the increasing value is NT$248,356, therefore the net profit is NT$154,578 for 10 tons of 8A grade persimmon. From the aspect of cost analysis, application of 53℃-50min with hot-water to ‘Fuyu' persimmon fruits can effectively inhibit softening and browning of stored in low temperature and maintain best qualities, high salable rate and best profit. Therefore, it has practical applicability to apply the treatment to ‘Fuyu' persimmon fruits by preservation at 53℃-50mins with hot-water then can be stored at 1℃ for 2 months.
Appears in Collections:園藝學系



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