Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28676
標題: 蒜球採收後處理貯藏技術之研究
Studies on Postharvest Handling Technique and Storage of Garlic Bulbs.
作者: 王怡玎
Wang, Yee-Ting
關鍵字: 610
蒜球610
Garlic Bulbs610
Postharvest Handling610
Storage610
610
採收後處理610
貯藏610
出版社: 園藝學系
摘要: 陸、中文摘要 本篇報告係針對臺灣蒜球採收後之處理貯藏作業進行研 究。在癒傷處理方面,採收後的蒜株,若以癒傷前之蒜球收穫指 數(59.1%) 為基準,則以全株方式進行癒傷3 日可增加收穫(重)量7.7%, 若以蒜球方式進行癒傷處理,則蒜球收穫(重)量會減少6.9%。在乾燥作業 方面,以烘乾度23%為準,人工熱風乾燥(36-38℃)的效率高於日曬法,除 了烘乾時日較短之外,並可使蒜球中心梗組織完全乾燥;在貯藏腐損方面 ,日曬乾燥的蒜球,於通風貯藏 5個月期間,蟲蛀球與黴腐球發生率皆比 人工熱風乾燥的蒜球多,日曬蒜球之貯後可售率明顯不如人工熱風乾燥的 蒜球。蒜球經人工熱風烘乾處理使失重程度為10%、15%、20 %、23% 及 25% ,結果顯示,瓣肉組織的水分含量並未因提高烘乾度而降低,烘乾度 達15-20% 則可使蒜球外層膜體、中心梗與基盤組織之水分含量明顯下降 ; 烘乾度較低的蒜球,通風貯藏期間失重率偏高,但烘乾度10%、15% 與20% 之總失重率頗為相近,皆稍低於25%烘乾組;烘乾度之高低,對於蒜 球貯藏品質之影響主要為黴腐發生率之高低,其中以烘乾度25% 組黴腐較 少;其他貯藏品質方面,如蒜瓣內芽體長度、發根長度與蒜瓣瓣肉品質, 各烘乾組之間的差異並不大。人工熱風乾燥處理對於鮮採蒜球之休眠情形 亦有影響,若以30 -33 ℃之人工熱風處理3日,則可提高新鮮蒜球的發芽 率與促進幼苗的生長。 在長期貯藏適溫之選定方面,以1℃ 及35℃貯 藏組的品質較佳,其中1 ℃組的出售可售率較高,但於冷藏6個月及10個 月出庫後,置於20±1℃之櫥架10天期間極易萌芽,櫥架可售率亦因而迅 速下降;35℃組在出庫後櫥架期間並無萌芽問題,其他各項品質亦皆良好 ,其櫥架可售率明顯高於1℃組。5℃、10℃及15℃是為催芽溫度,40℃則 會引起熱傷害,皆不適用於蒜球之貯藏。20℃與25℃貯藏組之貯藏壽命可 達6 個月,其櫥架品質頗為接近出庫品質,貯藏10個月時,由於這兩組蒜 球大量乾腐與失重,已不具商品價值。 在不同蒜球形態之貯藏力方面 ,球徑較大以及梗徑較粗的蒜球,在常溫通風貯藏期間容易失重、黴腐以 及發生蟲蛀現象,因此若欲進行蒜球之長期貯藏,宜避免採用大球徑的蒜 球與粗梗蒜球。 在一般之通風貯藏方面,本試驗擬應用臺灣夏季高溫 先予以一般通風貯藏並於冬季低溫催芽期來臨之前,移貯1℃ 冷藏,比較 冷藏出庫後之品質,藉以選定適宜之冷藏移貯時期。試驗顯示蒜球在通風 環境下貯放至9 月下旬之前,品質皆頗為良好,9月下旬至10 月上旬之間 ,蒜瓣內之芽體生長漸趨明顯,但若能於此時期,轉移至1℃ 冷庫貯藏, 則冷藏仍具有減緩芽體萌動的效果,若延至10月下旬以後才進行1℃ 低溫 貯藏,其抑芽效果並不理想。 長期冷藏之蒜球在出庫後的櫥架期間常 因大量萌芽導致販售價值偏低,經由試驗顯示,冷藏出庫後,蒜球若能予 以45℃或50℃熱風處理15小時,即可改善櫥架萌芽問題,其中45℃ 處理 組之櫥架壽命可達2週以上,50℃處理組由於受到熱傷害,櫥架壽命僅為1 週。 柒、英文摘要Summary The postharvest handling and storage of garlic bulbs (Allium sativum Lin .)was investigated . In harvesting , the bulb yield was higher when the matureplants were harvested and cured in the field for 3 days than those plantswere not cured or only the bulbs were cured . Mechanical drying with heatedair (36-38℃) was more efficient than solar drying.Bulbs with mechanical dry-ing had higher percentage marketable cloves than those with solar drying after5 month ventilated storage . When the bulbs were dried with machine to make 15or 20 % weight loss , the outer scales、 central stem and basal plate of bulbreduced their moisture contents rapidly . While there were not much change inmoisture content of clove flesh . Germination and the development of sproutingbud of harvested bulbs could be enhanced after keeping the bulbs at 30 - 33℃for 3 days. For long-term storage, different stored temperatures significantly affectedgarlic bulb''s sprouting and quality .The growth and development of cloves budswere slowed by storing at 1℃ or 35 ℃ , and enhanced at 5 ℃、10 ℃ or 15 ℃. Storing at 40℃ could induce heat injury of bud and clove flesh . The storagelife of garlic bulbs at 1℃ or 35℃ was 10 months. It was longer than 6 monthsbut shorter than 10 months for bulbs stored at 20℃ or 25℃, mainly due to theincreased weight losses and dry rot. Bulbs with big scale or large stem neck also had lower quality after 8 monthventilated storage , mainly due to high weight loss and decay resulted frommould and insect. To prolong the storage life of garlic bulbs in Taiwan , the bulbs can bestored at ventilated conitions from July to late September or early Octoberand then transfered to 1℃.The quality decreased much if the bulbs were trans-fered later than mid- October. Heat treatment by 45 ℃ or 50 ℃ hot air for 15 hours right after 8 monthsstorage at 0 ℃ could effectively inhibit the growth of clove bud during the 2week shelf at 20±1℃ . For this purpose , 45℃ was better than 50℃ because 50℃ would induce heat injury such as water soaking or browning on clove bud orflesh.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28676
Appears in Collections:園藝學系

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