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An Empirical Analysis on the Economic Effectiveness of Integrated Pest Management for Taiwan Carambola
|關鍵字:||Integrated Pest Management (IPM)|
Translog Cost Function
|摘要:||作物病蟲害防治傳統上以施用化學藥劑為主，素有增加造成生產成本、環境破壞，及引發消費者對生鮮食品安全性顧慮之虞，國內外逐漸採整合性防治(Integrated Pest Management, IPM)予以導正。IPM乃為利用多元化的防治方法控制害物族群，配合正確的農藥使用以減少收成損失之作物栽培管理方法。楊桃為台灣重要經濟果樹之一，近年來受病蟲害危害嚴重，農政單位雖已針對楊桃主要產地推廣整合性防治，並發現有良好成效，但IPM的經濟效益並未加以評估。
Farmers used to use chemical medicament to prevent the blight to crops, but the medicament is likely to increase the cost of products, pollute the environment and make the consumers worry about the safety of the agricultural products. As a result, people around the world to reduce the effect of using the chemical medicament use Integrated Pest Management (IPM). IPM is the multiple methods used to control the harmful group to the agricultural products; that is, using an adequate amount of pesticides to decrease to loss of the crops. Carambola is one of Taiwan's important economic plants; however, the blight to carambola is very serious, which are mostly caused by Oriental Fruit Fly and Bacterial Leaf Spot Disease. To be more convenient to quarantine in export trade, agricultural authorities have used IPM in carambola's place of production since 1999, and there are good effects reported. Although the effect of IPM has been proved, the fruit farmers will not be persuaded unless the multiple methods used to control the harmful group to the agricultural products are proved positive for the economic prospect of production. In fact, the economic effect of IPM has not been evaluated yet. Therefore, this research is going to use the data of the carambola in Miaoli County to prove the effectiveness of the multiple methods (IPM). Therefore, this research applies Hechman's two-stage estimation for experimenting the economic behaviors of the fruit farmers: The first stage will analyze the factors that can affect the result of IPM. In second stage, the Translog cost function will used to illustrate adoptor's cost expense; moreover, the predicted adoption probabilities will append to cost function. Finally, it applies the elasticity of IPM expense to analyze the effect on the decisions of the economic prospect of the farms. The experiment can be concluded as the following: 1.The first stage of the experiment is to analyze the factors that can affect the result of IPM. According to the inferences, adopting IPM or not is affected by the society and economy; that is, the more we understand the meaning and methods of IPM, the more we are likely to adapt IPM. Besides, if the fruit farmers are older, are experienced in planting the carambolas, are exporting the carambolas or are taking care of fruit farms that grow plants densely, they are more likely to adopt IPM. 2.The second stage is to use the cost function to estimate and add the inferences from the first stage that predict the probability of adoption and the inference of cost function by inverse Mill's ratio. The result is that the cost and the probability of adopting IPM have negative effect. In addition, elasticity of IPM expense is -22.46; that is, when the probability of adoption increases 1%, the expense of cost decreases 22.46%. When the probability of adopting IPM increase, the effectiveness of IPM will also increase and the cost of production will be reduced. 3.In Allen elasticities of substitution analysis, elasticity of pesticides' price to the laboring factors, the cost of fertilizer to the material factors, the price of the laboring factors to the materials and other factors, and the material factors to other input are all greater that 1 and signficantly. It means that the farmers have the ability to adjust these factors and apply them flexibly. If the pesticides' price to the laboring factors and cost of fertilizer to the material factors are smaller than 1, it means that the factors can not be adjusted flexibly. 4.This research uses Hechman's two-stage estimation to analyze IPM. It not only explains the effect of the probability of adopting IPM, but also explains the choices of the carambola-farmers make because of the cost. The experiment of the research established can be applied to the decision of IPM on different plants. It offers the agricultural authorities an economic basis for the following plans. In the future, IPM can be promoted according to the decreasing of blights; moreover, it can be promoted according to the cost.
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