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標題: 台灣原生獼猴桃屬分類及其分布
Taxonomy and Distribution of Indigenous Actinidia in Taiwan
作者: 謝東佑
Hsieh, Tung-Yu
關鍵字: Actinidia
出版社: 園藝學系所
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摘要: 獼猴桃性狀表現高多樣性,鑑定困難,各種分類問題亟待釐清。故本研究調查台灣各地原生獼猴桃分布狀況、採集標本及活體,並依據傳統分類法查閱相關原始發表文獻及模式標本,以確認分類群學名之使用。調查UPOV性狀及染色體,確認各物種間的性狀差異。以台灣原生獼猴桃屬活體與標本館標本為材料,選取60個性狀及72個野外獼猴桃族群,配合多變量統計與數值分類學中的分析方法,與UPOV及傳統分類的結果進行比較。 比對相關物種之原始發表文獻及模式標本,確認台灣原生獼猴桃屬共有五種,分別為闊葉獼猴桃(Actinidia latifolia)、 山梨獼猴桃(A. rufa)、 軟棗獼猴桃(A. arguta)、 台灣羊桃(A. setosa)及異色獼猴桃(A. callosa var. discolor),其中除軟棗獼猴桃染色體數為2n = 4x = 116,其餘種類皆為2n = 2x = 58。 UPOV性狀調查結果,闊葉獼猴桃每花序花數6-10花或超過10花、花梗長度長到極長(約3-6㎝)、花萼數2-3枚、花瓣主色黃或橙色,此可與其餘四種區分;山梨獼猴桃花瓣顏色類型為雙色,此可與其餘四種區分;軟棗獼猴桃染色體倍性為4倍、幼莖無絨毛、花萼顏色綠色、花藥顏色黑色、果實無絨毛,此可與其餘四種區分;台灣羊桃幼莖具密刺毛、葉背絨毛密、花梗絨毛長、花萼及花瓣數5或多於5枚、花徑大、果實具密剛毛或刺毛,此可與其餘四種區分;異色獼猴桃果實皮孔顯著、果實具極疏白色柔毛,此可與其餘四種區分。 數值分類方面,根據聚類分析及排序分析結果,台灣獼猴桃亦可大致分為上述5群。利用羅吉斯迴歸與貝氏分類法等判別分析技術,對相關模式標本分別進行鑑定的結果,亦與傳統分類所得之結果大致相符,故未來數值分類具有應用於驗證傳統分類結果的潛力。 另外根據數值分類性狀調查結果顯示,闊葉獼猴桃幼枝絨毛種類為星狀毛、雄花與雌花萼片3枚、雌花子房長度0.21-0.25㎝,可與其餘四種獼猴桃區分;山梨獼猴桃雌花與雄花白色稍帶水紅色,可與其餘四種獼猴桃區分;軟棗獼猴桃雄花與雌花花藥紫黑色、雌花子房長度0.61-0.67㎝、果頂尖、果實表面無斑點、無宿存果萼,可與其餘四種獼猴桃區分;台灣羊桃葉柄、一年生枝條、果實與幼枝皆具極密長刺毛、雌花子房長度1.22-1.27㎝、葉背具中至長毛、葉片厚紙質,可與其餘四種獼猴桃區分;異色獼猴桃雌花花瓣長度0.83-0.83㎝、寬度0.61-0.69㎝、雌花萼片寬0.31-0.36㎝、果實表面具顯著斑點,可與其餘四種獼猴桃區分。 分布調查結果,闊葉獼猴桃分布於台灣海拔300-2200 m山區,主要分布地點為拉拉山、谷關、蓮花池、惠蓀林場、明池、鞍馬山、泰安、日月潭、東源、霧社、梨山及太麻里等地;山梨獼猴桃分布於全島海拔50-2200 m區域,主要分布地點為陽明山、北橫沿線、棲蘭山、大溪、福山植物園、太平山、歸田、牡丹、和平林道、尖石、霧社、三腳南山及鳳岡林道等地;軟棗獼猴桃分布於中北部海拔1300-2600 m山區,主要分布地點有思源埡口、棲蘭山、司馬庫斯、拉拉山、和平林道、佳陽及太平山等地;台灣羊桃分布於全省海拔500 m以上山區,以1200-2500 m之間較為常見,主要分布地點有大雪山、阿里山、思源埡口、梅峰、梨山、棲蘭山、和平林道、杉林溪、太平山、司馬庫斯、尖石、觀霧、雪見、天池及能高越嶺古道等地;異色獼猴桃分布於全島海拔200-2100 m山區,主要分布地點為蓮花池、明池、福山植物園、溪頭、大漢山林道、和平林道、力行產業道路沿線、北東眼山、尖石、瑞里、大溪及阿里山等地。
The traits of genus Actinidia are high diversity and have resulted in long-term confusion in its nomenclature, classification, and identification. The indigenous Actinidia distribution, specimens and living tissues collection were investigated and studied. UPOV, traditional classifications and chromosomal numbers were used to classify the genus. The examined herbarium specimens and protologue were used to confirm the scientific name of taxa. The 60 characters and 72 indigenous Actinidia populations were selected, and multivariate statistics and numerical taxonomy with the results of UPOV and traditional classification were compared each other. According to traditional classification, Actinidia in Taiwan can be divided into 5 groups. Refering to the related types of specimens and protologue, confirmed that the five groups were Actinidia arguta, A. callosa var. discolor, A. rufa, A. latifolia, and A. setosa. For chromosomal numbers, A. arguta is 2n = 4x = 116, the remaining 4 species are 2n = 2x = 58. Based on living tissues and field survey, UPOV traits showed that the A. latifolia, flowers 6-10 or more, pedicels length 3 to 6㎝, calyx 2-3, main color of petals yellow or orange, can be distinguished with remaining 4 species. A. rufa, bicolored petals, can be distinguished with remaining 4 species. A. arguta, tetraploid, young stem without hairs, calyx green, black anther, fruit without hairs, can be distinguished with remaining 4 species. A. setosa young stem with dense bristles, dorsal leave dense hairy, peduncle with long hair, calyx and petals 5 or more, can be distinguished with remaining 4 species. A. callosa var. discolor, fruits with significant lenticels, very sparse white pilose, can be distinguished with remaining 4 species. This study used different methods of numerical taxonomy to verify the traditional classification results. According to the results of cluster and ordination analysis, the Actinidia can be divided into 5 groups. Discriminant analysis, logistic regression and Bayesian classifier, were used to identify the relevant type specimens. The results are the same as the traditional classification. Thus, the numerical taxonomy may have the importance for further developing and verifying the results of UPOV and traditional classifications. Species distribution showed (1) A. latifolia, at 300-2200 m throughout the island, primarily at Lalashan, Kukuan, Lienhwachih, Hui-Sun, Mingchih, Amashan, Sun Moon Lake, Tai-an, Wushe, Lishan and Taimali; (2) A. rufa, at 50-2200 m throughout the island, primarily at Yangmingshan, Northern Cross Road, Chilanshan, Dasi, Fushan Botanical Garden, Taipingshan, Guetein, Mudan, Hoping Forest Road, Chienshih, Wushe, Sachiaonanshan and Fongkun Forest Road;(3) A. arguta , at 1300-2600 m in the north or central part of the island, primarily at Szuyuanyakou, Chilanshan, Szumakus, Lalashan, Hoping Forest Road, Jiayang and Taipingshan; (4) A. setosa, above 500m throughout the island and common at 1200-2500 m, primarily at Tahsuehshan, Alishan, Szuyuanyakou, Meifeng, Lishan, Chilanshan, Hoping Forest Road, Sanlinchi, Taipingshan, Szumakus, Chienshih, Kuanwu, Shichien, Tienchih and Lengao Crossing Trail; (5) A. callosa var. discolor, at 200-2100 m throughout the island, primarily at Lienhwachih, Mingchih, Fushan Botanical Garden, Chitou, Dahanshan Forest Road, Hoping Forest Road, Lixing Industrial Road, Peidongjanshan, Chienshih, Ruili, Dasi and Alishan.
其他識別: U0005-2807201109410200
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