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Effects of Smoke-water on Seed Germination, Seedling Growth, Antifungal Activities and Postharvest Fruit Quality of Papaya (Carica papaya cv. Tainung No. 2)
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煙燻水在PDA培養基系統下及盆植番木瓜幼苗試驗上均可以抵抗土壤真菌所引發的猝倒病，以掃描式電子顯微鏡（SEM）觀察，煙燻水對於Pythium sp. 生長形態的影響，結果顯示煙燻水抑制了Pythium sp. 之菌絲體及孢子的生長。此外，3%煙燻水會使Pythium sp. 的細胞結構受到破壞、畸形、細胞質滲漏、甚至自我分解，且菌絲生長量減少。在盆栽試驗中，煙燻水可以降低番木瓜植株猝倒病的罹病率。
果腐是番木瓜果實採後品質損失的主要原因，其中，果腐病原包含炭疽病與疫病，分別為Colletotrichum gloeosporioides與Phytophthora sp.所致病。利用煙燻水或是甲殼素，於PDA培養基系統與接種於番木瓜果實上進行試驗。若將煙燻水或甲殼素添加入培養基中，結果顯示煙燻水或甲殼素抑制了C. gloeosporioides或Phytophthora sp.的生長。而在番木瓜果實接種C. gloeosporioides或Phytophthora sp. 後，分別處理10%與20%的煙燻水、0.5%的甲殼素、0.5%的甲殼素與10%的煙燻水之混合液，並以蒸餾水作為對照組 結果顯示，10%的煙燻水、0.5%的甲殼素以及0.5%的甲殼素與10%的煙燻水之混合液的處理降低了番木瓜果實炭疽病與疫病果腐病發病率及罹病程度。其中又以0.5%的甲殼素被膜之抑菌效果最好。
Smoke-water is a chemical extract used to stimulate the germination of seed, seedling growth and inhibit disease spreading of many plant species under cultivation. The present study was initiated to understanding the effect of smoke-water on germination, growth, defense to pathogenic fungi and increased postharvest quality of papaya (Carica papaya) cv. ‘Tainung No. 2'. Smoke-water was characterized analysis. This solution was acidic, substantial amounts of plant nutrients, high level of NH4+ which was important nitrogen sources for plant growth and has a high content of antifungal activity especially phenolic compounds. The compounds of smoke-water were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and 30 compounds were identified, which were mainly alcohols, lactones, aldehydes, acid, ketones, alkaloid and hydroxybenzenes. Among the identified compounds, have 3 types of compounds which considerable in this study, theirs were 2(5H)-Furanone that may stimulate the germination of papaya seeds, phenolic compounds that may inhibited the growth of several fungi and 1H-Imidazole,1-methyl-4-nitroso-5-phenyl- that ability to inhibit and antifungal pathogens. In the germination experiments, low concentrations of smoke-water (0.1% or 0.2%, v/v) not only promoted the maximum rate of germination but also shortened the germination time. Analysis of longitudinal sections of seeds treated with smoke-water concentrations of 0.1% or 0.2% v/v suggested that smoke-water could overcome water impermeability barriers, since it stimulated the seed coat to rupture and allowed the radical to elongate and emerge faster. In the growth experiments, smoke-water promoted multiple growth attributes, such as chlorophyll content and seedling vigor index, at all concentrations in papaya seedling production. Smoke-water was tested in vitro and in vivo for efficacy against damping-off caused by a soil borne fungi and investigate the effect of smoke-water on the morphology of Pythium sp. in scanning electron microscopy observation (SEM). Smoke-water inhibited the mycelia growth and oospore production of Pythium sp. Furthermore, after 3% smoke-water spray application, the morphology of Pythium sp. revealed loss of structural integrity, abnormal degradation, deformation, autolysis, cytoplasmic leakage and further hyphal slimming. In pot experiments, the percentage of papaya plants showing symptoms of damping-off was reduced by all concentration of smoke-water treatments. Fruit rots diseases are the major cause for the postharvest loss of papaya fruit. The control of anthracnose and Phytophthora fruit rots disease, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes and Phytophthora sp., respectively, by using smoke-water or chitosan tested in the vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies, using water agar amended with smoke-water or chitosan. The results showed that smoke-water or chitosan inhibited fungal growth of C. gloeosporioides or Phytophthora sp. In vivo studies, papaya fruits were inoculated with C. gloeosporioides or Phytophthora sp. and treated with 10% smoke-water, 20% smoke-water, 0.5% chitosan, a combination of 0.5% chitosan and 10% smoke-water, or distilled water (control), The results suggested that the use of 10% smoke-water, 0.5% chitosan or a combination of 0.5% chitosan and 10% smoke-water reduce the lesion diameter and disease incidence of anthracnose and Phytophthora fruit rots disease on papaya fruits. However, 0.5% chitosan coating was more effective among treatments. Postharvest quality, papaya fruits were treated with smoke-water, chitosan, and a combination of chitosan and smoke then were stored at the ambient temperature of 25 ◦C for 9 days. Papaya fruits coated with smoke-water increased the rates of respiration and ethylene production, and caused the papaya to ripen faster than the other treatments. This suggests that smoke-water show promising results for improving seed germination, seedling growth and controlling some plant disease. In addition, smoke-water can possibly economize the use of commercial chemical fertilizers, fungicide, making it a feasible technology for organic farming and non-chemical pesticide management model.
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