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標題: 自然環境體驗認知歷程之研究
Studies on Experience and Cognition Process of Natural Environment
作者: 李美芬
Lee, Mei-Fen
關鍵字: experience
cognition process
natural environment
visual quality
ecological quality
出版社: 園藝學系所
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摘要: 隨著環境永續經營的潮流及環境生態保護意識的抬頭,「維持生態多樣性」、「環境保育」已成為相關環境經營管理的基本指導原則,但亦引發視覺品質與生態品質間的衝突議題,造成景觀審美學派與生態體驗學派學者在知覺因子、體驗歷程及體驗效益等部分的爭辯。本研究針對環境經營不同面向之需求的衝突、以及不同支持學派學者辯論之立論基點模糊的問題,從現象研究、實驗及實證研究三個不同的研究取向針對個體之自然環境體驗及認知歷程進行探討,藉由一系列研究對相關研究議題的探索、解釋及驗證,對個體如何體驗自然環境、進行環境刺激的篩濾、訊息處理,並做出最終評估之歷程進行辨析。 第一階段的自然環境體驗歷程現象探索研究,乃針自然環境場域進行環境體驗現象之共同結構的建立,做為與其它景觀評估模式對話及執行後階段研究的立論依據。研究結果顯示,在行動者本身之「個體」領域部分,影響行動者體驗的主要概念類目包括「體驗前的心理思維狀況」、「個人相關經驗」及「個人特質背景」三大部分﹔在場域之「環境」領域部分,影響行動者體驗的主要概念類目包括「關注的環境元素或事件」、「關注的環境組合狀態」及「關注的環境生態及精神意涵」三個不同層級﹔在個體與環境之「互動」領域部分,影響行動者體驗的主要概念類目包括與個體、環境直接相關的「直接影響者」及其他的「間接影響者」等二部分之因素﹔而經整體之自然環境體驗及認知歷程後,產生之「結果及效益」則包括「獲得知識及體驗」、「影響態度及行為」、「產生心理效益」、「產生健康效益」及「產生環境評價」等部分。此外,將自然環境體驗認知歷程與傳統視覺風景式景觀美學的體驗知覺模式歷程進行比較後發現,個體在二歷程中關注的焦點元素並不相同。 第二階段的評估認知結構分析實驗,主要乃利用受測者執行自然環境的分類排序,揭露其於執行相關因子的評估時主要的認知因子。分析結果顯示,不同學習背景的受測者傾向使用本身熟悉的認知模式解構環境,進行體驗及評估﹔面對易理解之環境,觀測者以明確有效的認知結構體驗環境﹔而具特殊學習背景之觀測者,對環境因子之敏感度不同。另比較受測者進行景觀美質及偏好評估時同時回答的敘述資料所做之內容分析的結果顯示,進行一般偏好的評估時,有較多比例的受測者反應其評值會受環境或場景可提供的機能或功能所影響,與進行美學美質值估時使用之認知因子不同。 第三階段的研究乃以演繹的研究取向探討個體具有的背景特性,對訊息處理過程之認知評估因子及評估的影響情形﹔同時針對受測者對不同屬性之林木景觀環境的體驗評估情形,進行分析比較以了解受測者於不同環境中進行體驗及對環境產生評價時之訊息處理歷程重要因子間之關係。研究結果顯示,環境類型不同,受測者會知覺到及形成不同的認知因子﹔受測者進行不同評估時,受測者較敏感的環境因子及據以評估的因子並不相同﹔受測者的個人特質不同,亦會影響其進行體驗、認知及評估的情形。而於探討各評值間之相關性時亦發現,受測者在具不同特徵的環境中,其景觀美質與自然度、景觀美質與偏好之相關性亦不同。此部分研究驗證了前階段相關研究的結果。 本研究整合質性與量化思維,提供了一多面向檢視研究議題的研究設計模式。研究結果澄清了生態美學及景觀美學體驗立論基礎模糊的問題﹔另藉由比較不同屬性環境中評估歷程認知因子之異同及其間的關係,為相關理論注入不同思維觀點﹔而有關「環境生態品質需求」與「人類美學需求」間關係的探討,則可做為多元向度之「景觀健康」評估及經營模式發展之基礎。
With the trend of sustainable management and the increasing consciousness of ecological protection, ‘maintaining ecological diversity' and ‘conserving environment' have become basic guiding principles in environmental management. However, it induces issues about the conflict between visual quality and ecological quality and causes the arguments of perceptual factors, experience process, and experience benefit between the school of landscape aesthetics and the school of ecological experience. This study tries to clarify the conflicts and arguments by employing three different approaches, phenomenological research, experimental research, and positivistic research, to discuss experience and cognition process of natural environment. It is expected that the results could clarify the experience and cognition process, including how an individual subject experience the natural environment, how to filter the environmental stimuli, and how to process the information generated from the natural environment. For achieving this expectation, this study adopts a three-step approach to obtain the required data. The first step is related to the study of “Exploring the phenomenon of experience process in natural environment”. This step is qualitative oriented approach and focuses on finding the common structure of environment experience phenomenon when individuals proceed with their environment experience in a natural environment. The result of this step will play an important role in having a dialogue with other landscape evaluation paradigms and acting as the argumentation basis for implementing the further studies. In the part of individual subject, the results show that there are three major concepts influencing individual's experience, including ‘the psychological thinking condition before experiencing', ‘individual's related experiences', and ‘individual's socio-demographic background'. In the part of environment, the results indicate that there are also three major concepts influencing individual's experience, including ‘concerned environmental elements or events', ‘concerned environmental combination status', and ‘concerned ecology and meaning of an environment'. In the part of the interaction between individual subject and environment, the results show that there are two major concepts influencing individual's experience, including ‘direct influence factors related to individual subject and environment' and ‘indirect influence factors related to others'. Through the whole experience of natural environment and cognition process, five major outcomes and benefits are generated, such as ‘obtaining knowledge and experience', ‘influencing attitude and behavior', ‘generating psychological benefit', ‘generating health benefit', and ‘generating environment appraisal'. Furthermore, the study finds out that individual subjects concern different focused elements in two experiencing processes, experience cognition process of natural environment and traditional experience perception process. The second step is related to the study of “An experiment of evaluative cognition structure”. A sorting method is used in this step that respondents are asked to do sorting and ranking tasks in order to reveal the major cognitive factors while evaluating the related factors shown in different tested photos. The results show that respondents with different learning background will tend to use their own familiar cognitive model to deconstruct the environment while experiencing and evaluating the natural environment. Facing with the environment which is easily understood, respondents use the explicit and valid cognitive structure to experience the environment. In addition, respondents with specific learning background will have different sensitivity on environmental factors. Furthermore, the study uses content analysis to analyze the descriptive information replied by respondents while comparing scenic beauty and evaluating landscape preference. The results reveal that in proceeding general preference evaluation more respondents respond that their evaluation scores could be influenced by affordable functions provided by the environment. The results also show that the cognitive factors used in evaluating scenic beauty and landscape preference are different. The third step is related to the study of “Exploring the cognitive factors in information process and their influences”. This step is quantitative oriented approach and focuses on the discussions of how individuals with different characteristics deal with information provided by the environment. The study also compares respondents' reactions to the experience evaluation of woodland environment in order to realize the relationships of important factors in information process while experiencing and evaluation an environment. The results indicate that respondents will perceive and generate different cognitive factors when they are in different types of environment. While evaluating, the environmental factors respondents feeling more sensitive and factors used to do evaluation are different. Respondents with different characteristics will also influence their experience, cognition, and evaluation situation. When discussing the correlation between evaluation scores, the study finds out that the correlations between scenic beauty and naturalness of different environments are significant different. It is also true for the correlation between scenic beauty and preference. The results of this step also testify the results generated from the second step. Overall, this study integrates qualitative results with quantitative results and provides a multidimensional research design model to inspect research issues. The results clarify the argumentation basis for both ecological aesthetics and landscape aesthetics experience. In addition, the study infuses different perspectives into the related theories through comparing differences of cognitive factors used in evaluation process in different environments and the relationships between them. Moreover, the discussion about the relationship between ‘the demand of environmental ecological quality' and ‘the demand of human aesthetics' could serve as a basis for a multidimensional evaluation about ‘landscape health' and the development of management model.
其他識別: U0005-2908200611472700
Appears in Collections:園藝學系



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