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|標題:||闊葉獼猴桃、臺灣羊桃與 ‘中興4號’ (Actinidia deliciosa)之物化特性與繁殖之研究|
Studies on Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Propagation of Actinidia latifolia, A. setosa and A. deliciosa'Chung Hsing No.4'
Actinidia setosa ‘No.9'
‘Chung Hsing No.4'
Ascorbic acid content
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|摘要:||本研究研究不同海拔高度與不同成熟度之闊葉獼猴桃果實物化特性與抗氧化特性；且將不同海拔高度之闊葉獼猴桃，利用不同方式於低海拔地區繁殖且測量實生後裔植株光合速率。在臺灣羊桃上，則調查分析不同地區與不同成熟度之果實物化特性與抗氧化特性，並探討來自不同地區之臺灣羊桃種子播種、扦插與實生後裔植株光合速率，瞭解臺灣羊桃於低海拔繁殖之最適條件。最後，比較 ‘中興4號’ 與不同商業品種於果實發育期之物化特性，及探討不同貯藏溫度對 ‘中興4號’ 果實品質之影響；包括 ‘中興4 號’ 於不同簡易設施栽培下之萌芽率、開花率、著果率及果實之物化特性。
闊葉獼猴桃(Actinidia latifolia)搜集於中興大學高冷地園藝試驗分場(海拔1900–2100 m)、苗栗縣三義鄉雲洞山(海拔700 m)與中興大學惠蓀林場(海拔1000 m)；臺灣羊桃(A. setosa)果實採集自中興大學高冷地園藝試驗分場、臺灣大學附設山地實驗農場(海拔2300 m) (簡稱台大山地農場)、台中縣和平鄉鞍馬山(海拔2000 m)及中橫公路宜蘭支線4k (海拔1500 m)。另外， ‘中興4號’ ( ‘Chung Hsing No.4’ )為A. deliciosa ‘Bruno’ 之實生後裔，種植於中興大學高冷地園藝試驗分場。臺灣羊桃分佈於臺灣海拔1500 m以上之地區，目前本研究室已選拔出臺灣羊桃中最大果型之 ‘鞍馬9號’ (A. setosa ‘No.9’ )。闊葉獼猴桃盛花期與成熟期依海拔高度不同而異；臺灣羊桃盛花期為4月下旬而成熟期9月下旬至10月上旬； ‘中興4號’ 盛花期為5月中下旬而成熟期10月下旬。
中興大學高冷地園藝試驗分場(海拔1900–2100 m)之闊葉獼猴桃果實，開花後150天之可溶性固形物含量可達採收標準6.16 °Brix。惠蓀林場(海拔1000 m)闊葉獼猴桃果實之抗壞血酸含量1878.61 mg/100g，高於苗栗縣三義鄉雲洞山(海拔700 m)者953.39 mg/100g。成熟果之清除DPPH自由基能力為94.13±0.47 %，推測闊葉獼猴桃果實成熟時抗氧化能力仍非常高。海拔1000 m與海拔1900–2100 m之闊葉獼猴桃種子，未經溼層積處理之最終發芽率無顯著差異，其中後者之最終發芽率52.0 %。不同海拔高度之闊葉獼猴桃種子，溼層積處理1個月之平均發芽週數與發芽整齊度都無顯著差異。溼層積時間愈長，並無提高最終發芽率，及縮短平均發芽週數與發芽整齊度。海拔1000 m與海拔1900–2100 m之闊葉獼猴桃實生後裔植株，光合速率分別為6.54 μmol m-2 s-1與4.93 μmol m-2 s-1。海拔1900–2100 m之闊葉獼猴桃插穗扦插，發根率為63.64 %。
本研究之 ‘鞍馬9號’ 目前為臺灣羊桃中最大果型者，成熟果鮮重65.98 g，而台大山地農場與和平鄉鞍馬山之臺灣羊桃，果實鮮重分別為24.30 g與21.86 g，表示 ‘鞍馬9號’ 的確頗具商業品種實力且可當育種材料。不同地區之臺灣羊桃可溶性固形物含量皆達採收標準6–8 °Brix，表示其適地適種。臺灣羊桃具抗蟲抗病特性，而A. chinensis之 ‘江西8151’ 與 ‘秋翠’ 銹病危害嚴重，因此本研究針對果實品質加以比較，其中 ‘鞍馬9號’ 之幼果與成熟果清除DPPH自由基能力都超過90.00 %以上。 ‘鞍馬9號’ 與台大山地農場之臺灣羊桃種子，於未溼層積處理之最終發芽率無顯著差異，且前者之最終發芽率18.4 %。 ‘鞍馬9號’ 與鞍馬山之臺灣羊桃實生後裔植株，光合速率分別為5.62 μmol m-2 s-1及4.62 μmol m-2 s-1。 ‘鞍馬9號’ 與台大山地農場之臺灣羊桃插穗扦插，萌芽率都可達100.00 %，表示插穗之充實度足夠所致。
‘中興3號’ ( ‘Chung Hsing No.3’ ) ( ‘Bruno’ 實生後裔)果實較扁且長形，成熟果鮮重96.18 g，而 ‘中興4號’ 果實較正圓形，果實成熟時94.10 g，果實鮮重高於商業品種之 ‘Abbott’ 71.72 g。大果較能受消費者喜愛， ‘中興4號’ 應具商業品種潛力。 ‘中興4號’ 果實成熟時果肉硬度高於 ‘中興3號’ 與 ‘Abbott’ ，推測為較晚熟品種。 ‘中興4號’ 於20 °C後熟時可貯放20天，之後果實全部腐爛且失去商品價值。從1 °C低溫貯藏之果肉硬度及可溶性固形物含量可推測， ‘中興4號’ 確實較晚達食用階段。A. deliciosa開花期是為每年的4–5月亦即臺灣之梅雨季節，由於高山雨量充沛而使得開花率及產量嚴重受影響，因此本研究之 ‘中興4號’ 採用遮雨棚及鐵板設施栽培，萌芽率都高於對照組；透明雨傘之開花率最高；著果率則以遮雨棚及透明雨傘最佳，分別75.76 %與81.98 %。表示不同設施亦具防雨效果，因而可避開梅雨季節。綜合上述結果，不同海拔高度之闊葉獼猴桃果實皆含超高抗壞血酸含量， ‘鞍馬9號’ 目前為臺灣羊桃中最大果型者且具抗蟲抗病特性，與 ‘中興4號’ (A. deliciosa)大果且為正圓形，晚熟種使得貯藏壽命延長，因而使得此三品種深具發展潛力。|
This study investigated the physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of Actinidia latifolia from different maturity and altitudes height. The seed seedings, hardwood cuttings and photosynthesis rates of A. latifolia seedling from different altitudes, indicated the most suitable condition for propagation at low altitude. Moreover, the physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of A. setosa were investigated from different maturity and areas. The seed seedings, hardwood cuttings and photosynthesis rates of A. setosa seedling from different areas, implied the most suitable condition for propagation at low altitude. Additionally, the physicochemical characteristics of A. deliciosa ‘Chung Hsing No.4' ( ‘CH No.4' ) was compared with that of other cultivars during fruit developing stage, on the other hand, the fruit quality of ‘CH No.4' was influenced by different storage temperature. The sprouting, flowering and fruit setting and fruit physicochemical characteristics for ‘CH No.4' were examined on different protected cultivation. Actinidia latifolia was gathered in the experimental farm at the Department of Horticulture of National Chung Hsing University (NCHU) (altitude 1900-2100 m), Cloud Mountain Sayyi Township in Miaoli County (altitude 700 m), and Huisun forest farm of NCHU (altitude 1000 m). The A. setosa was collected from the experimental farm at the Department of Horticulture of NCHU, the highlands experimental farm of National Taiwan University (NTU) (altitude 2300 m) and On Ma Mountain Peaceful Township in Taichung County (altitude 2000 m). Additionally, ‘CH No.4' was selected seedlings of A. deliciosa ‘Bruno' seeds, grown in the experimental farm at the Department of Horticulture of NCHU. The kiwifruit A. setosa is the distributed at over the 1500 m above sea level in Taiwan; however, the largest fruit of A. setosa, A. setosa ‘No.9' , was selected at NCHU. According to the different altitude, A. latifolia anthesis season and mature season would be different various. The anthesis seasons of A. setosa and A. deliciosa are late April and late May, respectively; however, both of the mature season are late September and late October, separately. Soluble solids content (SSC) for A. latifolia achieved the harvest standard 6.16 °Brix at the 150 days after anthesis (DAA) from an experimental farm at the Department of Horticulture of NCHU (altitude 1900-2100 m). Ascorbic acid content in A. latifolia was 1878.61 mg/100g at Huisun forest farm of NCHU (altitude 1000 m), which was significantly higher than that in A. latifolia at Cloud Mountain Sayyi Township (altitude 700 m), which was 953.39 mg/100g. The DPPH activity of matured fruit was 94.13±0.47 %, infering that A. latifolia DPPH activity was relatively high at maturity. The final germination percentage (FGP) of A. latifolia seeds from the altitude 1000 m area was not significantly different compared with that from the altitude 1900-2100 m area; both of them were not processed by stratification. Also, the FGP of A. latifolia seeds was 52.0 % grown at the altitude 1900-2100 m area. The mean germination time (MGT) and spread time of 10 % to 90 % of final germination (GT90-10) of A. latifolia seeds from different elevation height were not significantly; all of them were processed by stratification for one month. And the FGP would not enhance, the other hand, the MGT and GT90-10 would not reduce for long time stratification. The photosynthesis rates of A. latifolia seedling from the altitude 1000 m and 1900-2100 m areas were 6.54 μmol m-2 s-1 and 4.93 μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. The rooting percentage of A. latifolia hardwood cuttings on perlite and vermiculite mixture media was 63.64 % from the 1900-2100 m area. The largest fruit of A. setosa, A. setosa ‘No.9' , had a mature fruit fresh weight of 65.98 g; fruit fresh weights for A. setosa grown at an highlands experimental farm of NTU and On Ma Mountain Peaceful Township were 24.30 g and 21.86 g, respectively. The experimental results demonstrated that A. setosa ‘No.9' has great potential for commercial production and breeding. In this research, SSC of A. setosa all attained the harvest standard were 6-8 °Brix from different areas, indicating that A. setosa suitablly grown at the different areas. The adult plant Yellow rust resistance is stronger than A. chinensis ‘Jiang See 8151' and ‘Chiu Tsui' . This study carried out a series of laboratory experiments, measurements, and comparison among different strains. The fruit DPPH activities of A. setosa ‘No.9' were >90 % at the 30 and 150 DAA. The FGP of A. setosa ‘No.9' seeds was not significantly different compared with that from the highlands experimental farm of NTU; both of them were not processed by stratification. Also, the FGP of A. setosa ‘No.9' seeds was 18.4 %. The photosynthesis rates of A. setosa ‘No.9' and A. setosa seedling of from the highlands experimental farm of NTU were 5.62 μmol m-2 s-1 and 4.62 μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. The sprouting percentage of hardwood cuttings were 100 % for A. setosa ‘No.9' and A. setosa of from an highlands experimental farm of NTU, indicating that hardwood was healthy and strong. A. deliciosa ‘Chung Hsing No.3' ( ‘CH No.3' ) was selected seedlings of A. deliciosa ‘Bruno' seeds; the shape of ‘CH No.3' is primarily flat and long and the fresh weight was 96.18 g. The shape of ‘CH No.4' is primarily circular and the fresh weight was higher than that in ‘Abbott' at maturity. Experimental results demonstrated that ‘CH No.4' has significant potential for commercial production. Flesh firmness of ‘CH No.4' was higher than that of ‘CH No.3' and ‘Abbott', infering that ‘CH No.4' is a late-maturing variety. The ‘CH No.4' could be stored for 20 days at 20 °C; however, the fruit was inedible after storage for 20 days. It was slow to reach the edible condition in both flesh firmness and SSC when it was stored at 1 °C. The flowering percentage and production of A. deliciosa were significantly reduced for the mountain rainfall seriously. In this research, the sprouting percentage of ‘CH No.4' was significantly higher when it was protected cultivation the rain shelter and iron plate than that in control; the flowering percentage was the highest for the limpid umbrella protected cultivation. The fruit setting of ‘CH No.4' for the rain shelter and limpid umbrella protected cultivation was 75.76 % and 81.98 %, respectively. The flesh firmness and SSC of ‘CH No.4' for rain shelter and limpid umbrella protected cultivation, indicated ‘CH No.4' matures early. Experimental results demonstrated that A. latifolia had the highest level in ascorbic acid content from different elevation areas. The largest fruit—currently A. setosa ‘No.9' has relatively high anti-insect and disease-resistant characteristics. The shape of ‘CH No.4' is primarily circular and had higher fresh weight, indicated fruit long storage life. Thus, A. latifolia, A. setosa ‘No.9' and A. deliciosa ‘CH No.4' have significant developing potential.
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