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標題: 全球國際旅遊障礙分析─OECD國家間邊境效應之驗證
Assessing Barriers of Global International Tourism-Evidence from Border Effect Approach between the OECD Countries
作者: 雷焜安
Lei, Kun-An
關鍵字: 引力模型
gravity model
tourism barriers
tourist mobility
出版社: 應用經濟學系所
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摘要: 本研究利用引力模型之邊境效應方法來估計OECD國家境內與境外之旅遊障礙。首先根據旅遊結合度之分析結果發現,2005年至2009年期間OECD國家境內之旅遊結合度較境外不同地理區域高出1.7至7倍。再利用Heckman二階段方法處理樣本選擇偏誤及針對Non-OECD不同地理區域進行敏感度分析後發現,OECD國家境內與境外不同地理區域之旅遊邊境效應較先前文獻有關已開發國家商品貿易之邊境效應小了許多,且隨著時間的推移大致維持1至2倍之穩定障礙。估計結果隱含已開發國家促進觀光服務業會比促進商品貿易面臨較小障礙,此現象可部份解釋旅遊結合度之分析結果,即意味來自高所得國家之旅客較偏好前往所得水準相似及較高之地理區域的現象,並未隨著時間的推移而有顯著的變化。
This study uses the border effect approach from the gravity model to assess the tourism barriers within and outside the OECD countries. First, the tourism intensity index for the OECD countries from 2005 to 2009 is 1.7 to 7 times higher than the outside in the different geographical regions. Using the Heckman two-stage estimation procedure to deal with sample selection bias and then sensitivity analysis in the different geographical regions of the Non-OECD countries, we find that the border effects of tourism within and outside the OECD countries in the different geographical regions are much smaller than the previous literature on the border effects of trade between developed countries which are remain at roughly 1 to 2 times the stability of the barrier over time. The results imply that the developed countries which promote their tourism services will face smaller barriers than those encountered in the promotion of merchandise exports. This phenomenon can partly explain the results of the previous tourism intensity index. It shows that tourists from high-income countries prefer to visit geographical regions with similar and higher income level. This phenomenon has not significantly changed over time.
其他識別: U0005-2308201213511300
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