Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28913
標題: 鈣、鉀元素對養液栽培胡瓜‘夏笛’植株生育及果實品質之影響
Effect of potassium to calcium ratio on plant growth and fruit quality of cucumber'Hsia Di' in soilless culture. (Cucumis sativus L.).
作者: 蔡正宏
Tsai, Jeng- Hong
關鍵字: photosynthesis rates
氣孔導度
water potential
stomatal conductance
total soluble solids
光合作用速率
拮抗作用
葉綠素螢光
出版社: 園藝學系所
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摘要: 本試驗之目的係為增加養液中鉀濃度,探討鉀離子對胡瓜生理功能之影響,期能達到提升氮肥使用效率,且提高果實產量及改善品質之效果;此外,同時調整養液中鈣濃度,觀察鉀鈣之間的相互作用。並且對EC値與鉀對植株與果實之影響做探討。 試驗以山崎養液胡瓜配方為基礎(control),進行胡瓜‘夏笛’之栽培試驗。 由分析結果顯示,將養液鉀濃度由235 mg/l提高至270 mg/l (T1)與350 mg/l (T2)可以顯著增加胡瓜植體之氮與鉀離子含量,且使植株葉綠素含量、水分潛勢提升。在T1與T2處理中,光合作用速率較對照組提升了約16%,氣孔導度增加20%。植體之株高、鮮重、乾物質及葉面積等生育性狀亦顯著高於對照組。鉀濃度的提升增加單株果實產量約22%,也使果實中維生素C與可溶性固形物等內容物顯著增加,提升果實品質。低溫3℃儲藏7天後,350 mg/l (T2)處理之果實測得葉綠素螢光值顯著高於對照組。 鉀與鈣濃度分別調整至350 mg/l 與240 mg/l (T3)處理之介質EC値在栽培過程中,比其他處理組高,而且接近胡瓜鹽害臨界標準(4 mS/cm),植株受到鹽害的狀態下,使生理過程產生差異。尤其在生育性狀上T3處理較差,且果實產量減少,乾物質含量增加,水分潛勢降低,果實硬度提高的現象,與前人研究以高鹽份處理之結果非常相似。另一方面,試驗中可清楚發現T3處理不論在葉片、莖部或果實,都有明顯鉀與鈣陽離子元素間的競爭與拮抗作用現象。提升養液中鈣濃度,與鉀相互競爭下,可能抵銷了鉀在T2等處理上所產生的效用,間接影響了植株的生長。 綜合上述,養液中270 mg/l及350 mg/l鉀處理,既顯著增加胡瓜植體中氮與鉀離子含量,又增加植株生長量與果實產量及品質,且栽培時並無鹽份影響的狀況產生;其中又以350 mg/l鉀處理之效果較為顯著。T3處理中產生了較明顯的陽離競爭現象,使植體中鉀與鎂含量降低,並使介質EC値提升,植株生育及果實產量都不如T1與T2處理。因此,本試驗鉀濃度提高至270 mg/l及350 mg/l,可達促進植體生長,並增加果實產量與品質之目的。
Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of difference ratio of potassium to calcium on plant growth, fruit yield and quality of cucumber ‘Hsia Di' grown in soilless medium. Results indicated that supplement of potassium to 270 and 350 mg/l in Shan-Chi solution had significant effects on increasing nitrogen and potassium contents in cucumber. Chlorophyll content, photosynthesis rates, stomatal conductance and water potential were enhanced as the potassium concentration in solution increased. As a result of physiology behavior of plant account for plant height, leaf area, dry weight and fresh weight were also increased. The photosynthesis rates, water potential and dry matter increased significantly on plants grown in higher potassium concentration. In the mean time, the Vit C.and total soluble solids contents had the similar tendency. It is postulated that, the osmosis adjustment of cells by the supplement of potassium may led to the increase of water retention capability, which subsequently decrease the membrane disinteqration caused by chilling injury. The supplement of potassium at 350 mg/l and calcium at 205 mg/l in Shan-Chi solution had significant effects on increase electric conductivity and approach to salt injury at 4mS/cm. Plant growth, water potential, yield and quality of fruit were adversely affected in this treatment. However, the dry matter content and fruit firmness increased. The antagonist activity between K+ and Ca+ was observed and resulted in counteraction efficacy of potassium. In conclusion, the supplement of potassium to 270 mg/l or 350 mg/l in soilless cultural nutrition solution had dramatic effects not only on the increase of nitrogen and potassium contents in cucumber but also on the enhancement of growth, yield and quality of fruit. Especially at the highest content of 350 mg/l potassium in nutrition solution. It is worthy of further study for the commercial production of vegetables of high yield and quality.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28913
其他識別: U0005-2808200716555800
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