Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28922
標題: 日長及溫度對圓筒絲瓜花性及開花之影響
Effects of day-length and temperature on sex expression and flowering of Luffa cylindrical Roem.
作者: 潘主恩
Pan, Chu-En
關鍵字: smooth loofah
圓筒絲瓜
day-length
temperature
sex expression
日長
溫度
花性表現
出版社: 園藝學系所
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摘要: 本研究為探討日長與溫度處理對圓筒絲瓜花性表現之影響。以對日照鈍感之品種‘青綠’、‘252’及‘秋綠’,和對日照、溫度敏感之品種‘溪州’、‘粗鱗’ 及‘03295,分別進行不同短日天數、日照時數及30/25與20/15不同日夜溫度之苗期處理,並加以栽培,調查生育性狀及開花表現。 在短日天數處理方面,‘秋綠’、‘252’和‘03295’三絲瓜品種(系)之葉片分化數量,以2天短日處理天數較少者,其葉片數較多,與20天短日處理天數相比,約有13-16片葉之差異。在第一雌花開花日數方面,2-20短日天數對日照敏感的‘03295’絲瓜品種之影響,約有10天之差;對於日照較不敏感的‘秋綠’和‘252’品種,分別約有6和7天之差。短日天數會影響雌/雄花的比率,三絲瓜品種(系)平均在2-12天短日天數處理後,雄花數量明顯比14-20天短日天數處理者較多,顯示短日天數的增加會降低雄花開花數量。 ‘秋綠’、‘252’、‘03291’和‘03295’四個絲瓜品種(系)經不同日長處理後,與自然日長相較之下,短日照處理對第一雄花序能提早開花約10-12天,第一雌花提早開花約10-18天。其中‘252’ 及‘03291’的臨界日長可能在10-11 小時,而‘秋綠’及‘03295’的臨界日長則為12-13小時左右。在9-14小時日長處理之間,四絲瓜品種(系)之雌花開花數皆呈現隨日長時數增加而減少的趨勢,但雄花序則有漸增的現象。 除了日長外,溫度對參試絲瓜品種之開花及花性均有顯著之影響,且兩者間有交感作用。絲瓜於幼苗期經不同溫度(30/25、20/15℃)與短日處理 (2-20天)後,日長鈍感的‘青綠’和‘秋綠’之第一雄花和雌花開花日數較日長敏感之‘溪州’和‘粗鱗’為早,其雌花著生節位較低,且定植後十週內的雌花數亦較‘溪州’和‘粗鱗’多。在所有處理間,‘青綠’之第一雄花序或第一雌花開花時間,較‘溪洲’之33.0-40.2天為早,約為定植後27.5-34.2天,可見品種間有明顯的差異。日長較鈍感的‘青綠’在30/25℃下之第一雄花開展天數,較在15/10℃低溫下處理之植株較晚。‘溪洲’與‘青綠’在30/25℃下,第一雌花開花所需天數隨短日天數增加而減少,且第一雌花開花節位呈現隨短日天數增加而降低的趨勢。無論是對日長敏感的‘粗鱗’或或對日常鈍感的‘秋綠’經30/25℃處理不同天數後,其第一雄花從播種日至開花所需之天數,隨苗齡增加而減少,但雄花數則隨苗齡增加而增加。 綜合上述實驗結果,可作為絲瓜育種及栽培之重要參考資料。
Abstract The objective of this study was to study the effect of day-length and temperature on flowering of Luffa cylindrical Roem. Six cultivars,‘Dark green', ‘252',‘03295',‘Fall Green',‘Xi Zhou', and ‘Cu Lin' were used as plant materials to study their growth characteristics and sex expression by the treatments of different short day-length, number of short day, and different day/night temperature at seedling stage.Among 6 cultivars, ‘252'and ‘Fall Green' are the long-day cultivars and ‘03295' and ‘Cu Lin' are long-day sensitive cultivars. Among short-day treatments, the leaf number of ‘Fall Green', ‘252' , ‘03295' under 2-day treatment were 13-16 leaves more than that of 20-day treatments.Plants under 2 to 20 short day treatment enhanced the inflorescence of the first pistillate flowers and it was found 10 days earlier on day-length sensitive cultivars abd 6 days earlier on day-length insensitive cultivars. Short day treatments decrease male flower number on all cultivars which result in higher male to female ratios. Short-day treatment on young luffa seedlings had the effects of enhancing the inflorescence of male flower by 9-10 day earlier and the pistillate flowers by 10-18 days earlier. Among the treatments of different day length, the number of pistillate flowers decreased as day length increased from 9 to 14 hours while the number of male flowers increased. According to the data, the critical day length of cultivar ‘252' and ‘03291' could possibly be within 10 to 11 hours and that of ‘Fall Green' and ‘03295' be 12 to 13 hours. In addition to day length, temperature showed significant effects on the flowering and sex expression of all tested luffa cultivars also. After being treated in high (30/25 ℃) or low(20/15 ℃) temperature and in short day for 2 to 20 days, the inflorescence of the first male and pistillate flowers of long day insensitive cultivars ‘Dark Green' and ‘Fall Green' were earlier than those of sensitive cultivars ‘Xi Zhou' and ‘Tsu Lin'. In the mean time, the node poison bearing the first pistillate flower was lower and the number of pistillate flower was higher on long day insensitive plants than on sensitive plants. Day needed from the end of treatments to flowering was found 27.5 to 34.2 days on ‘Dark Green'. Which was 5.5 to 12.2 day earlier than that of ‘Xi Zhou'. Apparently, there was variety difference. Although higher temperature accelerate plant growth, plants of long day insensitive cultivars ‘Dark Green' having short day treatment in 20/15 ℃ flowered earlier than those in 30/25 ℃. After being treated in short day environment at 30/25 ℃, for both ‘Fall Green' and ‘Tsu Lin', the number of days needed from sowing to flowering decreased as seedling age increased. but the number of male flower per plant increased. In conclusion, all the information collected from the above study could be valuable references for luffa breeding and production.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28922
其他識別: U0005-2908200712473900
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