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Study on the Improvement of Production System in Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)
vertical culture system
|引用:||參考文獻 王珂、沈掌泉、王人潮。1999。植物營養脅迫與光譜特性。國土資源遙感 1(1):9-14。 李阿嬌。1995。籃耕甜椒整枝栽培及密度對產量之影響。桃園區農情月刊 73: 1-4。 李敏、孟祥霞、孫海燕、呂劍、石運生。2002。彩色甜椒果實發育及品質形成研究。萊陽農學院學報 19(3): 187-190。 許福星。1977。作物生長分析及其應用。科學農業 25(11-12): 335-341。 陳烈夫、呂椿棠、呂秀英。1998。水芋在不同栽培季節之生長分析。中華農業研究 47(3)：220-241。 劉賢趙、康紹忠。2002。不同生長階段遮蔭對番茄光合作用、乾物質分配與葉N、P、K的影響。生態學報 22(12): 2265-2271。 戴振洋、陳榮五、李文汕、張武男。整枝方式對茄子光合成能力之影響。臺中區農業改良場研究彙報 66: 27-35。 戴振洋。1999。整枝方式對茄子生育及產量之影響。國立中興大學園藝學研究所碩士論文。台灣台中。 顏永福、黃智賢。2001。數學模式分析甜椒植株性狀和產量對栽培密度的反應。中國園藝 47(1): 31-40。 渡邊慎一。1999。果菜類の省力‧高品質生產技術。農耕と園藝 100-103。 Agele, S. O., G..O. Iremiren, and S. O. Ojeniyi. 1999. Effects of plant density and mulching on the performance of late-season tomato (Lycorpersicon esculentum) in southern Nigeria. J. Agri. Sci. Camb. 133: 397-402. Aloni, B., L. Karni, Z. Zaidman, and A. A. Schaffer. 1996. Changes of carbohydrates in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) flowers in relation to their abscission under different shading regimes. Ann. Bot. 78:163- 168. Ballaré, C. L., A. L. Scopel, and R. A. Sánchez. 1995. Plant photomorpho- genesis in canopies, crop growth, and yoeld. HortScience 30(6): 1172- 1181. Bertin, N., M. Buret, and C. Gary. 2001. Insights into the formation of tomato quality during fruit development. J. Hort. Sci. and Biotech. 76(6): 786-792. Dubois, M. K., A. Gilles, J. K. Hamilton, P. A. Robers, and F. Smith. 1956. Colorimetic method for determination of sugars and related substance. Anal. Chem. 28: 350-356. Erickson, A. N. and A. H. Markhart. 2001. Flower production, fruit set, and physiology of bell pepper during elevated temperature and vapor pressure deficit. J. Amer. Hort. Sci. 126(6): 697-702. Howard, L. R., R. T. Smith, A. B. Wagner, B. Villalon, and E. E. Burns. 1994. Provitamin A and ascorbic acid content of fresh pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum L.) and processed Jalapenos. J. Food Sci. 59(2):362-365. Huber, S. C. 1989. Biochemical mechanism for regulation of sucrose accumulation in leaves during photosynthesis. Plant Physio. 91: 656-662. Jolliffe, P. A. and M. M. Gaye. 1995. Dynamics of growth and yield component responses of bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) to row covers and population density. Sci. Hort. 62: 153-164. Lee, L. L. R. Howard, and B. Villalón. Flavonids and antioxidant activity of fresh pepper (Capsium annuum) cultivars. J. Food Sci. 60(3): 473-476. Marcelis, L. F. M. and L. R. B. Horman-Eijer. 1995. Growth analysis of sweet pepper fruit (Capsium annuum L.). Acta Hort. 412: 470-479. Mostenbocker, C. E. 1996. In-row plant spacing affects growth and yield of pepperoncini pepper. HortScience 31(2): 198-200. Paul, M. J. and C. H. Foyer. 2001. Sink regulation of photosynthesis. J. Exp. Bot. 52: 1383- 1400. Saĝlam, N. and A.Yazgan. 1995. The effect of planting density and the number of trusses per plant on earliness, yield and quality of tomato grown under unheated high plastic tunnel. Acta Hort. 412: 258-263. Sanchez, V. M., F. J. Sundstrom, and S. Lang. 1993. Plant size influences bell pepper seed qulity and yield. HortScience 28(8): 809-811. Schroeder, J. I., G. J. Allen, V. Hugourieux, J. M. Kwak., and D. Waner. 2001. Guard cell signal transduction. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 52:627-658. Stoffella, P. J. and H. H. Bryan. 1988. Plant population influences growth and yields of bell pepper. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 113(6): 835-839. Sun, T., Z. Xu, C. T. Wu, M. Janes, W. Prinyawiwatkul, and H. K. No. 2007. Antioxidant activities of different colored sweet bell peppers (Capsium annuum L.). J. Food Sci. 72(2): 98-102. Wilson,J. W. , D. W. Hand, and M. A. Hannah. 1992. Light interception and photosynthetic efficiency in some glasshouse crops. J. Exp. Bot. 43 (248): 363-373. Xing, Y., X. Wang, and A. P. Papadopoulos. 1997. A multilayer soilless system for greenhouse tomato production pioneered in Shandong province, people’s republic of china. HortTechnology 7(2): 169-176.|
‘銘星’甜椒以128格、72格、35格及3吋軟盆等4種不同體積之育苗容器分別培育至6週、9週及12週，調查每週生長狀況。各種調查項目之相對生長率以3吋軟盆苗表現最佳，生長趨勢以大穴格優於小穴格苗，增加穴格體積對促進根部生長有直接影響。以10種相對與複合指數估算壯苗程度，大多以12週苗之壯苗指數值最高，其次為9週苗。進一步以路徑係數分析法分析各性狀與壯苗指數間之關聯性，結果顯示相對壯苗指數4、 5及複合壯苗指數2、5具有較高之決定係數 (R2；coefficient of determination)， 分別為0.929、0.890、0.918及0.975。與壯苗指數相關係數 (r≥0.9) 較高之苗期性狀分別為葉面積、地上部鮮重、地下部鮮重及全株乾重等4項，其中葉面積、地上部鮮重、地下部鮮重對壯苗指數為正向之直接作用，全株乾重為負向的直接作用，其餘性狀的影響則為間接作用。利用簡單的相對壯苗指數4 (地上部鮮重/株高) ，或選擇1個以上之相對指數與數量性狀組成的的複合壯苗指數5 [(莖徑/株高) ×全株乾重×葉片數]，以預測甜椒苗品質較為準確。在育苗方面應以增加葉面積、提高鮮重及全株乾重之技術為前提，進行苗圃之管理。至於不同穴格與苗齡之甜椒苗定植後之早期產量以6週及9週苗之表現較為穩定，單株產量平均約469-491g。由於12週苗定植前已帶有一小果，果實具強大積貯(sink)，將影響光合產物分佈，導致新展枝葉之生長速度變慢，延遲開花，使產量與採果數顯著性降低，建議大苗育苗週數不宜超過12週。
不同海拔高度育苗對甜椒苗品質之影響以平地苗優於中海拔苗，並以35格/9週苗表現最佳。雖各項壯苗指數值以3吋盆/12週苗最高，但定植後之生育，如始花日數、始收日數、開花集中度、採收集中度及早期產量等皆以9週苗之表現佳。特別在第一花序之始花日數，不論是平地或中海拔地區，苗齡及穴格體積愈大，愈早開花。第一至第三花序開花集中日期以72格/9週平地苗所需日數最少，僅需6天，但12週苗則需16-18天，中海拔地區育苗並未明顯縮短開花日數。各處理間之採收日期集中度以平地之35格/9週苗最佳，僅需6天即完成採收前三果序，其餘處理則至少需10天以上，尤其是3吋盆/12週苗之大苗，不論在平地或中海拔地區育苗，至少需20天以上才能完成採收。顯示3吋盆/12週苗初期雖可以提早開花，但因定植後之生長勢變弱，所以延遲了第二及第三果位之成熟時間。各處理間仍以35格/9週及72格/9週之中海拔苗表現較穩定，比目前慣用之128格/6週苗約縮短田間生育日數15-23天。以石蠟切片法觀察育苗至2-8片本葉時花芽分化之階段與差異，發現不同育苗環境對花芽發育之程度確有影響，尤其是根部有較大之體積容量時，不論在平地或是山區育苗，均加快花芽創始 (initiation) 及發育 (development) 之速度，但中海拔地區育苗有促進花器發育之效果。
甜椒因開花節成性強，為控制生長勢，本試驗探討第一花序留果及去頂處理對早期產量與果實早熟性之影響。調查結果顯示育苗穴格體積越大，有利定植後第一至第四花序集中開花日數，第一花序除花或留花處理對於單株採果數及早期產量之影響不顯著。每節位平均果重以第一花序“除花－去頂”處理組較佳，其次為“不除花－去頂” 處理、“不除花又不去頂”之對照組單果重最低，但總產量最高。再者，“不除花－去頂” 處理對集中採收日數之影響較大，35格/9週苗定植後自第一花序開始採收至第三花序完畢僅需13.4天，“除花－去頂”採收完前三花序則需20天。顯示第一花序之存在有利提早開花且加上去頂處理有利縮短採收時間，除花處理使第二花序開花時間延後，連帶影響採收日數。對於定植後之生育影響，穴格容積較大之成苗較小苗具有發展潛力，其苗期效應至少可延續至四個花序。
為增加早期產量，甜椒以雙層立體式袋耕栽培，並以一般性之單層栽培為對照組，分別調查不同栽培位置之植株生長變化及生理分析。立體式栽培對節數、株高、葉片乾重及葉片數等外觀表現無明顯影響，但葉片鮮重、葉面積、比葉重及葉果比等項目以下層栽培者較高。顯示下層之植株受到光線利用之限制其葉面積變大，葉果比12.3較上層之6.1具明顯差異。下層植株受遮蔭之影響始花期延遲，始果節位高，上下層總產量之差異來自於採果數。下層植株落花 (果) 之情形較嚴重，但上下層合計總產量仍高於一般之單層栽培。立體式栽培使植株之葉片澱粉含量明顯低於一般性之單層栽培，莖部可溶性糖及澱粉等光合產物，在上下層植株之間無明顯差異，但均較單層低，兩者在養份運移之利用有顯著不同。光合作用速率與氣孔導度以單層較佳，立體式栽培對上下層之光合作用影響無明顯差異，但上層植株之葉片氣孔導度最低。分析不同栽培位置果實之色澤、硬度及維他命C等品質，以上層果實品質較佳，維他命C含量明顯高於其他處理。
The purposes of this study were to explore the appropriate combination between plug size and seedling age for sweet pepper in order to enhancing growth and shortening the lag phase upon transplanting, and to examine the growth and development of these seedlings after transplanting. Furthermore, path analysis between seedling index and seedling characters of sweet pepper plug seedlings were employed to established suitable seeding index and physiological criteria for seedlings cultivation. This information could provide a useful reference for improving the seedling nursery and cultivation of sweet pepper. Six-week seedlings of ‘Andalus' Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) grown in 128-plug were used as control. The seedlings were raised in 72-plug, 35-plug, 128-plug, or 3-inch soft pots, and horticultural characters of seedlings growing at different size of plug or pot were recorded up to 9-12 weeks. The highest relative growth rate was found in the seedlings growing in 3-inch pots, and seedling grown in large plug turned to have a higher growth rate than those grown in small plug. The combinations of plug size and seedling age were selected for further investigation, namely 72-plug at 9 weeks, 35-plug at 9 weeks, 35-plug at 12 weeks, and 3-inch pot at 12 weeks. Among the 4 seedling age, 12 weeks seedling was the highest, followed by 9 weeks seedling, regardless of 10 formula of seedling index. The results of path analysis revealed that the coefficient of determination (R2) of relative seedling index No.4 and No.5, and compound seedling index No.2 and No.5 was the highest among 10 sets of seedling index, e.g. 0.929, 0.890, 0.918, 0.975, respectively. There was a proportional relationship between all seedling traits and the seedling indexes. Among the all traits, the highest correlation (r≥0.9) was found in the leaf area, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, and plant dry weight. In particular, the leaf area, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight had the positive and direct effect on seedling index, but plant dry weight had the negative and direct effect on it, other traits had the indirect effect. Since the highest correlation coefficient was found in the simple relative seedling index No.4 (shoot fresh weight /seedling height) and the compound seedling index No.5 (stem diameter /seedling height), we suggested that the simple relative seedling index No.4 and/or more than one of seedling index in combination of the compound seedling index No.5 could be used as the evaluating criteria for plug-seedling. In addition, culture practices for enhancing the leaf area, shoot fresh weight, and plant dry weight were also required for improving the quality of plug-seedling. The longest days from the transplanting to flower initiation in first inflorescence were found in the seedlings grown at 128-plug for 6 weeks, i.e. 38 days. However, the flowering days from first to third inflorescence in the seedlings grown at 128-plug for 6 weeks were 17.3 days, whereas 15.5 and 37.3 days were found in the seedlings grown at 3-inch pots for 12 weeks and 35-plug for 12 weeks, respectively. Therefore, growing-seedling stages for larger container such as 128-plug or 35-plug should not longer than 12 weeks. ‘Andalus' sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) were sowed and grown in plug or pot at different altitudes to evaluate the effects of plug size and altitude on horticultural traits. The result show that plant height, stem diameter, and dry and fresh weight of seedlings grown at low altitude were higher those that of middle altitude. The seedlings of 35-plug at 9 weeks and 3-inch pot at 12 weeks performed the best horticultural traits at low altitude and middle altitude, respectively. The results of analysis by the relative seedling index 4 and multiple seedling index 5 indicated that the there were significant difference among the treatments, as well as between low altitude and middle altitude. Earlier the starting date of flowering was found in the larger plug size or bigger seedling age. Highly concentrated flowering period was observed in the seedlings of 72-plug at 9 weeks grown at low altitude, it only took 5.7 days for first three inflorescence to complete flowering, whereas 15.5 to 18 days for 12-weeks seedlings. The fruits of 3rd inflorescence could be harvested completely in 6.3 days after the first harvesting in the treatment of 35-plug at 9 weeks, while the other treatments took more than 9.8 days to complete harvesting. Especially the treatment of 3-inch pot at 12 weeks, it took more than 20 days regardless of the altitude of cultivation area. The result indicated that the seedlings from 3-inch pot at 12 weeks can bloom earlier than other treatments, but the maturity of first and second inflorescences prolonged due to its slow growing after transplanting. The seedlings from 35-plug and 72-plug at 9 weeks grown at mid-altitude performing better and stable horticultural traits, the growing duration were 15-23 days shorter than the common used 128-plug at 6 weeks. The timing of flower bud initiation were affected by the seedling nursery environment. In spite of the sweet pepper seedling cultivated at middle or low altitude of, the seedlings with bigger root area had the earlier flower initiation and development. Greenhouse-grown sweet pepper is the main cultural system in Taiwan as a conventional long-season crops, and main growth duration from planting to harvesting takes at least 5-6 month. The cost of maintain and fungicide payment occupies the most production cost. In order to regulating the time of bloom and fruit harvesting, farmers used to remove the first inflorescence or fruit, making it a big lose in early yield amount 10-20%. In this study, two different treatments of removing the first fruit and topping were employed when plant bearing three inflorescences. The objective was to study the controlling and shortening the harvesting period of sweet pepper for more effective production system. The seeds of “Andalus” sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) were sowed and grown in 128-plug as control, the other seedlings were raised in 72-plug and 35-plug with seedling growth period extended to 9 weeks, then transplanted into cultural bag. The results indicated the bigger the plug size, more concentrated flowering period on first four inflorescences of transplants was resulted. There were no significant differences in the numbers of fruit per plant and early yield in the treatment of “1st inflorescence removed and topping”. Highest fruit weight and mean weight per node were found in the treatment of “1st inflorescence removed and topping”, and followed by the treatment of “1st inflorescence remained and topping”. However, the lowest fresh weight per fruit was observed in the control of “1st inflorescence remained and without topping”, but with the highest total yield. Furthermore, best performance among treatments of “1st inflorescence remained and topping” in shortening the harvesting period was found in the transplants raised in 35-plug at 9 weeks, it took 13.4 days for complete fruit harvesting from 1st to 3rd inflorescence, while 20 days in the treatments of “1st inflorescence removed and topping”. Our results revealed that the 1st inflorescence removed could delay the flowering of 2nd inflorescence, and resulted in extending the periods of fruit harvesting. First inflorescence remained might improving the early yield, while removing first inflorescence or topping fasten the early harvest dates. First inflorescence remained could shorten the days from transplanting to flowering from 19.9 to 13.4 days, and the the dominance lasting at least till 3rd inflorescence. Topping at young fruit stage could enhance the cell division, and the IAA in the seeds might be the key for improving the fruit setting and fruit development. The objectives of this study were to establish the two layer of vertical culture system for improving the production of sweet pepper, and to examine the effects of planting density and pruning on flowering and yield of sweet pepper cultivated in vertical culture system. The results indicated that there were no significant differences among culture systems in the parameters of plant node, plant height, leaves number, and leaves dry weight, but the leaves fresh weight, leaves area, specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf/fruit ratio were higher in upper layer of vertical culture system than in lower layer. This could be attribute to the limitation of sunlight in the lower layer, resulted in the increasing the leaf/fruit ratio, delaying the flower initiation, higher the node of initial fruit, and increasing the flower abscission. The results showed that lower the total soluble sugar and starch contents of sweet pepper leaf were found in the lower layer of vertical culture system, while higher the macroelements as well as microelements contents in the lower layer of vertical culture system. The total soluble sugar contents in the upper and middle part of sweet pepper leaf cultivated in the vertical culture system were significantly lower than those in single layer of controls. Although there was no significant difference in the total soluble sugar and starch contents of sweet pepper stem between upper and lower layer of vertical culture system, there was a trend for lower the soluble sugar and starch contents of stem in vertical culture system than that in single layer of controls. There was no significant difference in the leaf photosynthesis rate between upper and lower layer of vertical culture system, whereas the stomata conductance of sweet pepper leaf in the upper layer was significant lower in the upper layer of vertical culture system. In the parameters of fruit quality, such as color, firmness, and vitamin C contents, there was a trend for better performance in upper layer than that in the lower layer of vertical culture system. The results of effects of plant density and pruning on the growth, flowering and yields of sweet pepper cultivated in vertical culture system showed that earlier flowering, as well as higher LAI value and shielding percentage in the treatment of combination of 4 or 6 plants per bag with 2 stalk per plant than those of 8 plants per bag. The results revealed that the combinations of 4 or 6 plants per bag with 2 stalk per plant provided a suitable canopy arrangement, more effective photosynthesis rate and higher fruit weights. Since the planting density with over 6 plants per bag could reduce photosynthesis rate, 4 or 6 plants per bag with 2 stalk per plant was recommend in the vertical culture system for better production of sweet pepper.
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