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Influences of Natural Environment Information on Psychological Evaluation Responses
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As preference matrix model consist of four characters: coherence, legibility, complexity, and mystery that proposed by Kaplan and Kaplan (1989). Numerous research evidences verified that had significant correlation of the relationship between the four characteristics and preference. On the other hand, studies found mystery has correlation with danger and fear as well. Some relative literatures indicated human phobia that might caused by certain property of natural environment, there could evoke specific fear of events or situations, for instance, getting lost, falling debris, and wild animal and plant threat. To understand influences of natural environment information on psychological evaluation, this study contained two step procedures for questionnaire survey, furthermore, to explore relationship among the level of environmental information, perception, situational concern, preference, fear, and danger. The purpose of study 1 was to explore influences of different demographics and cultures on measure variables as well as to examine the items of questionnaire to provide a measure instrument for next step study. 110 Taiwanese and 90 Australian were watched six color slides then rated on the questionnaire. The results appear the internal consistency of items was well. We conducted varimax of factor analysis to reduce factor in situational concern after rotated then obtained four factor as label: environmental safety concern, criminal threat, wildlife threat, and direction. The findings showed culture difference had significant variance in environmental information, perception, situational concern, preference, and behavior. Furthermore, participants' difference of living environment, frequency of contact with nature, and bad experience in nature that resulted in all variables had significances, but gender only had significant with naturalness, mystery, movement ease, preference, and behavior. The base on literatures of situational concern that have obtain remarkable evidences in present study. In briefly, study 1 results verifying influences on demographical backgrounds and cultures that also established their different perspective vary with cultures, it not only including preference but also danger and fear. To provide study 2 procedure in way of study 1 results had been presented. Study 2 purpose was investigated influences of forest environmental information on psychology and built models for landscape psychological evaluation. There were consisted of sixty color forest slides to separate into ten different stimuli. Every stimulus including six slides. Totally 519 took general course of college students who rated on the questionnaire after they watched six slides. With regard to the results of correlation that had show naturalness of environmental information positively correlated among situational concerns (environmental safety concern, criminal threat, wildlife threat, and direction). On the contrary, openness, visual access, and locomotive ease had negative correlation with situation concerns. Complexity and mystery positive correlated with preference that as same as previous findings. Moreover, the high level of naturalness and complexity that had positively rise danger and fear. Visual access and locomotive ease had positive correlated with preference but negatively correlation with danger and fear. As the study expectation, the positively correlation among situation concerns, danger, and fear. In results of multiple regression model has been shown that predicted whether preference, danger, or fear. The proper predictors were openness, mystery, and locomotive ease. With regard to model for preference, criminal threat, wildlife threat, and environmental safety concern of situational concern that were significant variables especially in criminal threat. In model of danger and fear, all situational concern variables had been entered into models, particularly in direction. These studies brought up an idea－situation concern that has less mention by antecedent research to explore influence on landscape preference. From perspectives of culture, biological evolution, and social to explain relevant phenomena for landscape evaluation. To provide another thinking of future research as well as to offer concrete suggestion for planning and design.
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