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Studies on Physiology of Softening in Grapeberries
Cell wall hydrolase
為克服蜜紅葡萄果實軟化的問題，本研究於開花期前後利用cytokinin類物質處理花（果）穗或以鈣噴施新梢，探討其對果實硬度之影響。由調查分析結果可知，cytokinin類物質的處理均能有效提高夏、冬兩季蜜紅葡萄果實的硬度，尤以夏季葡萄較顯著，其中以Cytex 500倍液處理效果最為明顯，其次為BA 100 ppm，Flumet 2.5ppm，處理時間則在滿花前7日至滿花期之間較佳。提高果實硬度之主要原因是cytokinin類物質可有效提高果肉的細胞層數，且其果膠質含量降低較為緩慢，鈣含量亦較高。至於對可溶性固形物、酸度及鮮重，並無明顯的影響。在滿花前7日、滿花期及滿花後7日連續三次，新梢噴施鈣之處理結果以0.25 %之磷酸一鈣或EDTA-Ca均可有效提高其硬度，鈣處理後果實的鈣含量及果膠質含量亦增加。|
In order to find out the factors of berry softening of ‘Honey Red’ grape (Vitis vinifera L. X Vitis labrusca L. )，the same tetraploid hybrid variety ‘Kyoho’、the diploid hybrid ‘Golden Muscat’ and ‘Italia IP65’ grapes were used as material in this study. The development of grape berries, the berry firmness, total soluble solid, acidity, mineral element content, pectin, and cell wall hydrolyase of berries were investigated. It was found that the softening of grape berries was more serious in summer grapes than winter grapes. Among the four varieties, ‘Italia IP65’ grapes showed the highest level of firmness，‘Kyoho’ attained the second highest level , ‘Honey red’ and ‘Golden Muscat’ were on the low level. The effect of mineral element contents with the berry firmness was investigated. The results showed that the content of calcium was significant in the firmness of berries. During the period of berry development, the total pectin content decreased and the percentage of water-soluble pectin to total pectin increased. Accompanied by berries softening, the activity of polygalacturonase(PG)、cellulase andβ-D-galactosidase increased significantly. It was found that the enzyme activity of grape berries was higher in summer grapes than in winter grapes. Among the four varieties, ‘Honey Red’ and ‘Golden Muscat’ showed the highest activity of those enzymes ，‘Kyoho’ showed the second level ,and ‘Italia IP65’ showed the lowest. In order to solve the problem of softening of ‘Honey Red’ grapes the cluster was treated with cytokinins at various bloom stage, or the shoot was sprayed with calcium r three times during the bloom stage. The firmness of berries increased by treating with cytokinins in both harvest seasons, especially in summer grapes. Among these cytokinin chemicals, the most effective result appeared in 500-diluted Cytex treatment than the treatments of 100 ppm BA and 2.5 ppm Flumet. The available treatment time was the period during the 7 days before bloom to full bloom stage. The reason of increasing firmness of berries was that the cell layers of flesh increased and total pectin and calcium content were kept at a higher level by treating with cytikinins, but it showed no difference in fresh weight、total soluble solid and acidity of berries. Treating with 0.25% Calcium phosphate or EDTA-calcium, calcium content of berries was increased. The berry firmness and pectin content of berry were higher than the control.
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