Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/29091
標題: 遊客不參加人員解說之因素及其因應策略之探討 -以陽明山國家公園為例
Discussing Reasons Why Visitors do not Participate in Personnel Interpretation and Its Corresponding Strategies - A Case Study of Yangmingshan National Park
作者: 蘇詩容
Su, Shih-Jung
關鍵字: Interpretation
解說
Constraint
Corresponding strategy
Interpreter
阻礙
策略方式
解說員
出版社: 園藝學系所
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(三) 網路資源 陽明山國家公園網站:http://www.ymsnp.gov.tw/ 二、 西文部份 (一) Journal Articles 1. Alexandris, K., Tsorbatzoudis, C., & Grouios, G. (2002). Perceived constraints on recreational sport participation: Investigating their relationship with intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation. Journal of Leisure Research, 34(3), 233–252. 2. Boothby, J., Tungatt, M. F., & Townsend, A. R.(1981). Ceasing participation in Sports activity: reported reasons and their implications. Journal of Leisure Research, 13, 1-14. 3. Boothby, J., Tungatt, M. F., & Townsend, A. R.(1981). Ceasing participation in Sports activity: reported reasons and their implications. Journal of Leisure Research, 13, 1-14. 4. Brochu, L. & Merriman, T. (2001) Certified Interpretative Guide Training Workbook. CO: National Association of Interpretation. 5. Brophy, M. and Klely, T. (2002)“Competencies: a new sector. Journal of European Industrial Training: 167. 6. Crawford, A. W.& Godbey, G. (1987). Reconceptualizing barriers to family leisure. 7. Crawford, D. W., Jackson, E. L., & Godbey, G. (1991). A hierarchical model of leisure. 8. Crawford, D.W., & Godbey, G.C. (1987). Reconceptualizing barriers to family leisure. Leisure Sciences, 9, 119-127. 9. Francken, D. A. & van Raaij, W. F. (1981). Satisfaction with leisure time activities. Journal of Leisure Research, 13 (4), 337-352. 10. Henderson, K. A., Stalnaker, D. & Taylor, G. (1988). The relationship between barriers to recreation and gender-role personality traits for women. Journal of Leisure Research, 20(1), 69-80. 11. Howard, J. (1998). Environmental Education and Interpretation: Developing an Affective Difference. Australian Journal of Environmental Education, 14, 65-70. 12. Inc.Jackson, E. L. (1983). Activity-specific barriers to recreation participation. Leisure Sciences, 6 (1), 47-60. 13. Iso-Ahola. S.E., & Weissinger,E (1987).Leisure and Boredom .Journal of social and clinical psychology,5(3),356-364. 14. Kay, T. & Jackson, G. (1991).Leisure despite constraint : The impact of leisure constraints on leisure participation. Journal of Leisure Research, 23(4), 301-313. 15. Knapp D., .& Gregory M. B .,. (2004) “Elements to Successful Interpretation: A Multiple Case Study of Five National Parks. Journal of Interpretation Research (9)2: 9-25. 16. McGuire,F.A.(1984). A factor analytic study of leisure constraints in advanced adulthood. Leisure Sciences, 6, 313-326 17. Meredith, J., Cantrell, D., Conner, M., Evener, B., Hunn, D., & Spector, P. (2000). Best Practices for Environmental Education: Guideline for Success. Columbus, Ohio: Environmental Education Council of Ohio. 18. Moscardo, G.(1998). Interpretation and sustainable tourism: Fuctions, examples and principle. Journal of Tourism Studies, 9(1), 2-13. 19. Orams, M. B. (1996) Using interpretation to manage nature-based tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 4(2), 81-94. 20. Raymore, L., Godbey, G. C., & Crawford, D. W. (1994). Self-esteem, gender, and socioeconomic status: Their relation to perceptions of constraint on leisure among adolescents. Journal of Leisure Research, 26(2), 99-118. 21. Raymore, L., Godbey, G., Crawford, D., & Von Eye, A. (1993). Nature and process of leisure constraints: an empirical test. Leisure Sciences, 15, 99-113. 22. Romsa, G. & Hoffman, W. (1980). An application of nonparticipation data in recreation: testing the opportunity theory. Journal of Leisure Research, 12(4), 321-328. 23. Searle, M. S. & Jackson, E. L. (1985). Socioeconomic variations in perceived barriers to recreation participation among would-be participants. Leisure Sciences, 7(2), 227-249. 24. Sharpe, G.W.(1982)Self-guided trails. Interpretating the Environment, 298-325. 25. Tilden, Freeman. (1977) Interpreting Our Heritage. (3rd edition). Chapel Hill:University of North Carolina Press. 26. Tubb, K. N. (2003) An evaluation of the effectiveness of interpretation within Dartmoor National Park in reaching the goals of sustainable tourism development. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 11(6):476-498. 27. Tubb, K. N. (2003). An evaluation of the effectiveness of interpretation within Dartmoor National Park in reaching the goals of sustainable tourism development. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 11(6), 476-498. 28. Williams, D. R., & Vaske, J. J. (2003) The measurement of place attachment: Validity and generalizability of a psychometric approach. Forest Science, 49(6), 830-840.
摘要: 近年來全球資源減少,自然林地、動植物、特殊物種等不可回覆的資源逐漸消失,台灣的生態環境也受全球化的影響而產生改變。環境的教育是最有效的方式之一,解說是最直接的方式也最容易傳達的。前人研究發現國內遊客偏愛的解說媒介是解說員,加上解說員是可以傳遞環境保育最好的方式之一,又為遊憩區遊客偏好的主要選擇。然而從遊憩活動中發現,參加解說員的導覽活動人數偏少,是否因有阻礙因素的存在之故,此乃瞭解本研究探討之重點。過去有許多關於阻礙的相關研究而許多研究休閒阻礙面向皆是以Crawford和Godbey(1987)的三個構面為主,分別為(一)個人內在阻礙(Intrapersonal Constraints)、(二)人際間的阻礙(Interpersonal Constraints)、(三)結構性阻礙(Structural Constraints)。就解說的角地而言遊客參與人員解說活動的阻礙因素是否與休閒阻礙面向有雷同? 乃為本研究欲了解之處。 本研究先針對國家公園遊客及國家公園解說志工以質性訪談方式,歸納分析遊客不參與解說的阻礙因素,再將之轉化成問卷方式進行量化研究。本研究以陽明山國家公園遊客為調查對象,共獲得394份有效問卷。經統計分析與驗證後,本研就有如下的發現: 解說阻礙構面共萃取出五項:「個人內在因素」、「時間機會因素」、「外部環境因素」、「同伴影響因素」、「解說員因素」。解說經營管理業者可以依據阻礙因素重要程度,解決解說之困境。 解說策略方式部份經因素分析亦後萃取五項策略方式構面:「變化性的解說」、「客制化的解說」、「互動式的解說」、「體驗式的解說」、「誘因式的解說」,藉此因素構面及評值經營管理表了解遊客所重視後續研究建議可針對不同地區解說阻礙因素,探討其阻礙是否具有不同之因素出現。最後本研究針對解說阻礙提出實質的解說策略之分析結果,期盼提供遊憩區管理解說教育部門之發展建議,進而提升國人參加解說活動達到環境維護及永續之目標。
Environmental education is one of the most effective ways to protect environment that has dramatically been changed for last few decades because of overusing and decreasing resources. In the field of environmental education, it is said that interpretation plays a critical role in protecting the ecological environment of Taiwan. Among interpretative media, personnel interpretation has been proved as one of the most preferred media for its quick response, direct information provision, and vivid interaction with visitors. However, the frequency and number of visitors who participating in personnel interpretation is not as high as it is expected in reality. It is doubted if there exists constraints in participating the personnel interpretation and what specific constraints might be. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to find out reasons why visitor not participating personnel interpretation and its corresponding strategies. The study used both qualitative and qualitative methods to obtain the required data. First of all, the study adopted depth interviews to explore factors why visitors did not participate in the personnel interpretation and strategies which interpretative volunteers might use to correspond with the interpretative constraints. As a result, the study obtained 42 constrained factors and 32 corresponding strategies. Then, the study used questionnaire survey and convenient sampling method to obtain opinions from visitors in Yangmingshan National Park. In total, 394 valid samples were obtained. The descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and canonical correlation analysis were used to analyze data and examine research hypotheses. The major findings are described as followings. By performing factor analyses for both 42 constrained factors and 32 corresponding strategies, the study extracted 5 constrained factors including “intrapersonal factor”, “time and opportunity factor”, “external environment factor”, “companion's influences factor”, and “interpreter factor”. The study also extracted 5 strategic factors including “diversified interpretation”, “customizing interpretation”, “interactive interpretation”, “experiencing interpretation”, and “incentive interpretation”. By performing confirmatory factor analysis, the result showed that the construct reliability and validity of constrained factors were reasonably accepted. By performing canonical correlation analysis, the result indicated that customizing interpretation strategy can be used to mitigate the possibilities of constrained factors such as time and opportunity factor, external environment factor, and interpreter factor. Furthermore, strategies of diversified interpretation, interactive interpretation, and experiencing interpretation can be used to alleviate the possibility of intrapersonal constrained factor. Based upon the research findings, the study proposed practical suggestions for using appropriate strategies to solve interpretive predicament and enhance visitors' participation in interpretive program in order to achieve the goal of sustainable environment. Moreover, the study also mentioned suggestions for future studies.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/29091
其他識別: U0005-2008200918300900
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-2108200911063400
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