Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/29118
標題: 巨峰葡萄植株生長與樹體活力之關係
Relationship between Plant Growth and Tree Vigor in Kyoho Grapevines
作者: 張致盛
CHANG, CHIH-SHENG
關鍵字: root system
根系
chilling
bud forcing
water
culture
低溫
催芽
水分
栽培
出版社: 園藝學系
摘要: 中文摘要 葡萄在台灣一年多收栽培模之下,第二收植株生長勢較弱、花穗長度較短、生產的葡萄果粒較小等問題存在已久,本研究之目的為在一年二收栽培模式之下,探討葡萄植株生長與樹體活力之變化,並調查栽培管理對根系生長之影響,期能在台灣地區特殊栽培模式下建立葡萄植株生長與樹體活力之關係。除可作為改進植株生理狀態及栽培管理技術之基礎資料外,並可供日後進行其他落葉果樹在高溫環境下栽培之參考,茲將試驗結果敘述如下: 利用挖掘與根箱法觀察一年二收栽培模式之下不同生育時期'巨峰’葡萄根系之生長,結果顯示在春天枝條萌芽之前,地下部新根已開始生長。由不同生育時期新根的生長量及在根箱壁之面積計算,第一收栽培時硬核期之後,當枝條生長減緩後,新根才開始大量生長,於第二收修剪後萌芽期之初新根的生長停頓,直到硬核期才開始另一次生長高峰,但第二收新根之生長量較第一收為低。又試驗結果顯示新根與地上部新梢的生長呈交互之關係,而在第一收與第二收果實採收後根系並沒有另一次生長高峰,此與溫帶地區一年一收栽培,果實採收後根系有另一次生長高峰的模式不同。 由一年二收栽培模式下不同生育時期植株生長特性之調查,顯示枝梢生長以第一收長度較長、葉數較多,枝之直徑亦在第一收時增加較多。葡萄葉片光合成速率在開花期至硬核期之調查較高,著色期之後降低,而總葉綠素含量則至成熟期才降低。第一收及第二收根與枝條活性在萌芽期後開始上升,於著果期達到高峰,成熟期之後下降,相同生育時期以第一收之活性較高。分析植體碳水化合物含量,第一收修剪生長初期之全可溶性糖、澱粉含量較第二收高,植體中以根含量較地上部高,而在第二收生育末期植株澱粉含量逐漸增加,其中以根之含量較高。游離胺基酸及可溶性蛋白質含量亦以根部之含量較高,生育初期游離胺基酸含量以第一收含量較高,可溶性蛋白質含量則兩收差異不大。 夏季以5℃進行不同時數冷藏處理,結果顯示以5℃低溫300小時處理可促進第二收葡萄萌芽及新梢生長,延長低溫處理時間並無法提早萌芽,但亦可促進萌芽後新梢之生長。夏季低溫處理可提高植株TTC活力,而萌芽前調查植株TTC活力亦以低溫處理或氰胺處理較高。夏季(7∼8月)低溫處理可提高第二收葡萄修剪後及萌芽前全可溶性糖含量,唯澱粉含量降低,可溶性蛋白質含量降低,游離胺基酸則在低溫處理初期下降,但處理延長至900小時後上升。 控制土壤含水量於30%調查一年二收栽培模式根部之吸水量,由連續二年之調查結果顯示根部吸水量隨新梢生長量之增加而上升,第一收根部吸水量高峰在6月下旬∼7月上旬果實成熟前,在第二收修剪後吸水量下降,但隨第二收新梢生長而上升,在10月上旬達第二收之高峰,隨後逐漸下降。比較二收根部吸水量之差異,第一收之吸水量較高,而第二收吸水量較低,第一收吸水量高峰期可持續較長的時間,而第二收吸水量高峰則因氣溫降低而很快下降。 調查一年一收栽培模式根系生長模式結果,具有硬核期至著色期之間及採收後二次生長高峰,與一年二收栽培模式不同。結果量影響成熟期根系之生長,新根面積與結果量呈負相關,但與新梢總長度呈正相關。控制土壤含水量為30%、26%及22%時,在2∼3月植株新梢生長停止之時三種處理根部吸水量並無差異,但當萌芽後新梢長度與葉面積逐漸增加,植株吸水量亦逐漸提高,土壤含水量較高之植株吸水量較多,而土壤含水量較高之植株生長量增加,相同土壤含水量之下,第一收總水量較第二收高50∼83%。催芽處理後初期對吸水量影響不大,但催芽後第18∼19日之後,催芽處理之植株隨著新梢生長吸水量增加。 綜合本研究之結果,地上部與地下部相互影響,在一年二收栽培模式下巨葡萄根與新梢呈現交互生長之情形。由於生長初期植體碳水化合物含量以第一收較高,而低溫有助於不溶性碳水化合物之轉變,更利於植株新梢初期之生長,因此第一收地上部與地下部之生長量都較第二收高,TTC活力測定及根部吸水量亦以第一收較高。低溫使萌芽提早並促進萌芽後新梢之生長,其原因應是低溫可促進澱粉分解為可溶性糖,而有助於萌芽後新梢之生長活力。
Summary The grape production in Taiwan has multiple harvest in a year. But in the second harvest, tree vigor was decreased, inflorescence was shorter and the berry size was smaller. In order to understand the relationships between plant growth and tree vigor of this unique cultural model in Taiwan, the variation of physiology of root growth and tree growth vigor in two harvest crops were investigated, and the influence of vineyard management on the root growth was discussed in this study. It will provide the information for the improvement on the plant physiological condition and vineyard management technique, and serves as reference for the plant physiological research of other deciduous fruit tree that grew in high temperature area. The growth of root system in different growth stages of two harvests ‘Kyoho' grapevines(Vitis vinifera L. ×Vitis labruscana Bailey cv. Kyoho) was observed by means of excavated method and glass-walled rhizotron method. The results showed that the young roots were began to grow before budbreaking in the spring. The growth amount of young roots was measured the area of the young roots on the glass face was also calculated at different growth stages. It revealed that a mass growth of root system in first harvest was occurred often the slowdown of the shoot growth at the varison stage, and the flush growth of young roots was observed at the berry coloration stage. The young roots ceased to grow at the budbreaking stage that followed the pruning for the second harvest, another flush growth was started at the varison stage, whereas the growth amount was lower than that of in the first harvest. According to the investigation of this experiment, a correlative relationship is existed between the growth of the young roots and the shoots, and neither the first nor the second harvest had flush growth in the post-harvest periods. This result was different from the one-harvest per year in the temperate-zone area. The growth physiology in different growth stages of two harvest grapevines was investigated. The results showed that the first harvest had longer shoot length and more leaves, and thicker shoot diameter than that of second harvest. The leaf photosynthetic rate was higher during flowering stage to varison stage and declined after coloration, whereas the chlorophyll content was decreased till maturation stage. Both in the first and the second harvest, the physiological activities of root and shoot were increased following budbreaking, and reached the peak at fruit-setting stage, declined after maturation, the physiological activities in the first harvest were higher as comparing in the same growing stage. In the analysis of plant carbohydrates, the contents of total soluble sugar and starch in the early growing stage after pruning were higher for the first harvest than the second harvest, and the contents were higher in the roots than in the above part. The plant starch content was gradually increased in the late growing stages in the second harvest, in which the root had the higher content. The contents of free amino acids and soluble protein were also higher in the root, the contents of free amino acids in the early growing stages in the first harvest were higher, whereas there was no difference in the contents of soluble protein between two harvests. The plants were treated with different duration of chilling in 5℃ in the summer. The results showed that treatment of 5℃ chilling for 300 hours could promoted the budbreaking and shoot growth in the second harvest, prolong the chilling duration could not accelerate the budbreaking but enhanced the shoot growth after budbreaking. Chilling treatment in the summer could increase the plant physiological activities, and the activities in the pre-budbreaking stage were higher in treatment with chilling or hydrogen cyanamide. Chilling treatment in the summer, from July to August, could increase the content of total soluble sugars after pruning to budbreaking in the second harvest, and decreased the starch content. The content of soluble protein was decreased, and the content of free amino acids decreased at the early stage of chilling, but increased as the chilling was prolong to 900 hours. The investigation of water absorption in two-harvest model was carried out under the control of 30% soil water content. The results of two years showed that the amount of root absorption was increased with the shoot growth. The peak root absorption of the first harvest occurred in late June to early July, right before ripening, and decreased after pruning of the second harvest. The absorption decreased as the shoot growth of the second harvest, the second peak absorption was reached at early October, and decreased thereafter. Comparing the difference of the amount of water absorption between the two harvests, the first harvest was higher than the second harvest. The peak absorption of the first harvest lasted longer whereas the peak absorption of the second harvest decreased sharply owing to the decrease of temperature. The result of the investigation on the model of root growth in one harvest showed that two flush growths were appeared in varison stage and post-harvest, which was different from two-harvest. The root growth during maturation stage was affected by the yield of the fruit, the area of young roots have negative correlation with the yield. The root water absorption amount during plant growth ceasing period from February to March had no difference among three soil water content, 30%, 26% and 22%. Following by the increase in shoot growth and leaf area after budbreaking, the plant water absorption was increased gradually, the plants in higher soil water content had high absorption amount and thus increasing vine growth. In the same soil water content, the total water absorption was 50-83% higher in the first harvest than that of the second harvest. The influence of bud-forcing on water absorption was low at the early period, but the absorption in the bud-forced plant was higher at 18-19days after bud-forcing. Based on the results of this study, the growth of above part and the root were mutually co-related, an alternation of growth appeared between the root and the shoot in two harvest ‘Kyoho' grapevines. As the plant carbohydrate contents at early growth stage was higher in the first harvest, thus the winter chilling could help the conversion of the insoluble carbohydrate and the early shoot growth. Therefore, the growth of the above part and the root were both higher in the first harvest than that of the second harvest, and higher TTC viability and root water absorption were also occurred in the first harvest. The chilling condition could enhanced budbreaking and the shoot growth. The probable reason is that the chilling accelerate the decomposition of starch into soluble sugars thus enhance the plant vigor after budbreaking.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/29118
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