Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/29119
標題: 台灣國家公園地方依附量表建立與驗證
Establishing and verifying place attachment scale of national parks in Taiwan
作者: 林建堯
Lin, Chien-Yau
關鍵字: Place attachment scale
地方依附量表
National park
Qualitative method
Confirmatory factor analysis
Structural equation modeling
國家公園
量化方法
驗證性因素分析
結構方程模式
出版社: 園藝學系所
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摘要: 地方依附是個多面且複合的概念,它代表個體和特定地方的正向關係或連結。地方依附之相關研究是近年來相當熱門的議題,但研究者對於組成地方依附之構面一直存在著許多不同的看法;再加上直接轉譯國外的量表,導致題項內容也有許多疑點需要加以探討。有鑑於此,本研究之主要目的乃在依循量表發展程序,針對台灣最多樣遊憩機會的自然場域—國家公園,來發展本土性的地方依附量表。 本研究首先經由文獻回顧確認地方依附之概念後,以質性訪談的方式,蒐集台灣國家公園之情感依附詞句;總計獲得489個與國家公園情感相關的用詞或行為概念,同時歸納為196個次類別,最後轉化為71個有關國家公園地方依附的題項題庫。 其次,再透過專家審查方式作題項效度之確認,將71個題項縮減為62個題項並組合成遊客預試問卷,前往各國家公園作抽樣調查;共計抽取568份有效問卷,經過各項統計驗證,保留29個題項作為正式問卷施測之內容題項,並初步萃取出四個構面。正式問卷施測依據這些題項組合成問卷,同樣針對六個國家公園遊客作抽樣調查,共得2090份有效問卷;經過項目分析與驗證型因素分析後,得到15個國家公園地方依附的題項,分別代表地方情感趨同、地方心靈效用、地方本土認同、地方資源重要四個構面。 最後,本研究針對量表最佳模式加以評鑑、比較,發現一階多因素斜交與二階單因素模式均能通過所有適配指數之檢驗,但高階模式較符合簡效原則,故選定二階單因素為最佳模式。為求更具穩定性的量表模式,再選出不同的兩個樣本群,來通過複核效化之檢測,代表模式穩定之複核效化獲得支持。至此,所有量表發展步驟及相關檢測均已完成,確立了台灣國家公園地方依附量表為二階單因素之模式、四個構面、15個題項的量表。 本研究在動機上不同於過去研究的橫向理論驗證觀點,而是從縱向深度探究單一場域的地方依附概念,並確立了由質化尋找情感用詞到量化發展具測量信效度的構面與題項之方式是具體可行地。所發展出來的四個構面與題項,出現了本土與國家意識評價的題項,有別於其他量表;量表隱含較多評價的意念,容易聚焦於心理層面的情感反映,故比其他研究能深入描繪出心理狀態的情感,有效地量測國家公園地方依附概念。日後可實際運用於各國家公園政策擬定、通盤檢討等階段,並可利用遊客依附程度的高低,來達到管理單位自我檢測之目的。
Place attachment is a multi-dimensional and composite concept. It represents a positive relationship or connection between an individual and a specific place. Place attachment is a very popular research subject in recent years, but researchers continuously have different opinions about the dimensions of place attachment. Besides, place attachment scales are often translated directly from foreign countries, and as a result, their item contents are questionable and need to be further discussed. For this reason, the purpose of this study is to follow the scale development procedure and develop a domestic place attachment scale that targets the National Parks in Taiwan, which are most diverse natural recreation areas in the country. This study first defined the concept of place attachment by literature reviews, and then collected attachment related phrases regarding Taiwan's National Parks through qualitative interviews. A total of 489 attachment related phrases or behavioral concepts were collected and divided into 196 sub-categories, then finally transformed into an item pool containing 71 National Park place attachment related items. Secondly, these 71 items were reduced to 62 items after their effectiveness were carefully examined by experts, and then combined as a pre-test survey for sampling in each National Park. A total of 568 effective surveys were collected, and after statistic verification, 29 items remained as the test content of the formal survey, and four dimensions were extracted initially. The formal survey based on these items was sampled in six National Parks, and 2090 effective surveys were collected. After item analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis, 15 items regarding National Park place attachment were obtained, and they represented four dimensions of feeling convergency of place, Spirit utility of place, Indigenous identity of place, and Resources importance of place. Finally, this study evaluated and compared the best scale model and discovered that both first level correlated factors model and second level hierarchical model had passed all the examination for goodness-of-fit index, but the higher level model fit better with the simple effect principle. Therefore, second level hierarchical model was the best model. Two different sample groups were then chosen for cross-validation in order to seek a more constant scale model. To this point, all the scale development procedure and examination were complete, and established that the place attachment scale of Taiwan's National Parks is a second level hierarchical model, four dimensional scale with 15 items. The motive of this study is different from the horizontal verification of past researches, but rather examines the place attachment concept of a single place through vertical in depth methods, and establishes that using qualitative method of finding emotional phrases to quantitative technique of examining effectiveness of dimensions and items is very practical. The four dimensions and items this study developed showed domestic and national awareness, which sets it apart from other scales. This scale implied more evaluation ideas, and made it easier to focus on reflecting emotions from the psychological level. Therefore, this scale can better describe the psychological feelings, and effectively examine the concept of National Park place attachment. It can be used in the policy making and overall review stages of the National Parks in the future, and use visitor's place attachment level to achieve the goal of self-examination of the management unit.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/29119
其他識別: U0005-3107200911584700
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-0106201023140800
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