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Studies on Flowering Physiology, Interspecies Hybridizationand ISSR Analysis of Kalanchoe Species Native in Taiwan
|摘要:||本研究使用蝴蝶之舞（Kalanchoe fedtschenkoi）、鵝鑾鼻燈籠草綠葉型（K. garambiensis green leaf type）、鵝鑾鼻燈籠草紫葉型（K. garambiensis purple leaf type）、掌上珠（K. gastonis-bonnieri）、大還魂（K. gracilis）、落地生根（K. pinnatum）及倒吊蓮（K. sphaulata）等7種燈籠草屬物種材料，探討遺傳相似度、開花生理、性狀遺傳及種間雜交之結果。經形態性狀及inter simple sequence repeat(ISSR)之遺傳相似度分析後，台灣原生的燈籠草屬物種與掌上珠、落地生根或蝴蝶之舞的遺傳距離較遠，可將燈籠草屬7個物種分為3群。第1群包括鵝鑾鼻燈籠草綠葉型、鵝鑾鼻燈籠草紫葉型、大還魂及倒吊蓮。第2群為掌上珠及落地生根。另蝴蝶之舞則獨立自成一群。鵝鑾鼻燈籠草綠葉型、鵝鑾鼻燈籠草紫葉型、倒吊蓮及大還魂分化至雌蕊期的時間分別為短日後50、45、40及105天。花芽創始至萼片原體階段是分化的關鍵期，此階段分化速度較快者開花期較早。以GA3 5ppm以上處理落地生根及掌上珠可促使植株開花達100％。掌上珠及落地生根需分別以25 ppm GA3施用1次或2次具有誘導開花的效果。葉形、葉色、花藥顏色及開花形態皆由一對對偶基因所控制。綠色葉片、深裂形葉、紫紅色花藥及開花向上型為顯性對偶基因所控制。在種間雜交試驗中，所有物種的花粉皆有稔性，以蝴蝶之舞、K. fedtschenkoi‘Rosy Dawn’及K. manginii‘Wendy’為母本進行雜交，具有單向雜交不親和的現象。而開花向上型的物種與掌上珠、落地生根或蝴蝶之舞雜交組合的稔實率及發芽率較低，顯示種間雜交較為困難。經種間雜交後，雜交種的花筒長及花筒直徑有顯著增長之效果，開花期也可以明顯提早。尤其在鵝鑾鼻燈籠草綠葉型、紫葉型及倒吊蓮雜交之後代。因此燈籠草屬利用原生種進行種間雜交，可以進一步改良盆花之特性。|
The aims of this study were to investigate genetic variability, flower physiology, inheritance of characteristic and interspecies hybridization. Kalanchoe fedtschenkoi, K. garambiensis green leaf type, K. garambiensis purple leaf type, K. gastonis-bonnieri, K. gracilis, K. pinnatum and K. sphaulata were as material. Seven species of Kalanchoe were evaluated genetic similarity by plant characteristics and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR). The lowest genetic similarity was among native Kalanchoe spp., K. gastonis-bonnieri, K. pinnatum and K. fedtschenkoi. Through evaluation of genetic similarity of plant characteristic or ISSR, 7 species were divied into three groups. The first cluster comprised with K. garambiensis green leaf type, K. garambiensis purple leaf type, K. sphaulata and K. gracilis. The second cluster comprised with K. gastonis-bonnieri and K. pinnatum. K. fedtschenkoi was independent group. Under short day environment, K. garambiensis green leaf type, K. garambiensis purple leaf type, K. sphaulata or K. gracilis developed to G stage required 50, 45, 40 or 105 days, respectively. Anthesis date of Kalanchoe spp. was dependent on the flower initiation and the development speed. The period from initiation to sepal primodial stage was the key point. Early Kalanchoe spp. had quick flower development. The blossoms of K. gastonis-bonnieri and K. pinnatum were induced by spraying 5 ppm GA3. However, K. gastonis-bonnieri and K. pinnatum were promoted flowering by spraying 25ppm GA3 1 time or 2 times, separately. The results revealed that leaf shape, leaf color, anther color and flower type was governed by a single allele. Furthermore, green leaf, deeply lobed leaf, purplish red anther and upright flower phenotype was governed by dominant. Pollen of all species was fertile. However, there was not fruited when K. fedtschenkoi, K. fedtschenkoi‘Rosy Dawn'or K. manginii‘Wendy'was used as maternal in hybridization with other species. It was an unilateral incompatibility. Lower fertile rate and germination rate were found when species with uptight flower crossed with downright flower type, showing interspecies hybridization was difficult.. Flower tube length and diameter of hybrid were longer than original parent. Selected progeny of cross combination could advance the time of days to flower. For example, offspring were generated among K. garambiensis green leaf type, K. garambiensis purple leaf type and K. sphaulata. Therefore, the property of pot plant was improved by interspecies hybridization using native species.
|Appears in Collections:||園藝學系|
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