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標題: 愛玉子栽培改善的方法及其授粉小蜂的生態習性
Improved Cultivation Method of Jelly Fig (Ficus pumila L. var. awkeotsang (Makino) Corner) and Ecological Habit of Its Pollinating Fig Wasp
作者: 賴柏全
Lai, Bo-Cyuan
關鍵字: 愛玉子
Jelly fig
Creeping fig
Vine-crossing technology
Female floral phase
receptive phase
Male floral phase
Inter-floral phase
Fig wasp swarming
Jelly fig pollinating fig wasp
出版社: 園藝學系所
引用: 湯文通。1979。農藝植物學。國立臺灣大學農學院印行209-214 。 林讚標。1991。愛玉子專論。林業叢刊36號。臺灣省林業試驗所,臺北。128頁。 林政行。1983。利用癭蜂傳粉的無花果。農業周刊9: 27。 李和惠。2009。薜荔和愛玉子及其授粉小蜂之遺傳分化。國立臺灣大學昆蟲學系碩士論文。 何坤耀。1985。愛玉授粉之小蜂。中華昆蟲 6:1-14。 何坤耀。1987。愛玉授粉小蜂之生態及其在平地立足之可能性調查。中華昆蟲7: 37-44。 曾喜育、歐辰雄、呂福原。2003。惠蓀林場牛奶榕之榕果物候。臺灣林業科學18(4): 273-282。 姚若潔。1998。薜荔榕小蜂與薜荔之共生關係。國立台灣大學植物病蟲害學研究所碩士論文。 吳輝虎、吳登楨。2008。愛玉子平地栽培生產技術。苗栗區農業專訊43期。 Anstett, M. C., H. M. Martine, and K. Finn. 1997. Figs and fig pollinators: evolutionary conflicts in a coevolved mutualism. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 12: 94-99. Cook, J. M., and S. A. West. 2005. Figs and fig wasps. Ecology R978-980. Dhiraj, V., and K. Sanjay. 2005. Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) clone with lower period of winter dormancy exhibits lesser cellular damage in response to low temperature. Plant Physiol. Biol. 43: 383-388. Dhiraj, V., and K. Sanjay. 2005. Purification and partial characterization of a low temperature responsive Mn-SOD from tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). Plant. Physiol. Biol. 329: 831-838. Doymaz, I. 2005. Sun drying of figs: an experimental study. Journal of Food Engineering 71: 403-407. Galil, J., and D. Eisikowich.1968. Flowering cycles and fruit types of Ficus sycomorus in Israel. New Phytol. 67: 745-758. Galil, J., and D. Eisikowich. 1969. Further studies on the pollination ecology of (Ficus sycomorus L. Tijdschr). Entomol 112: 1-13. Galil, J. 1977. Fig biology. Endeavour 1: 52-56. Jousselin, E., N. Simon, and J. M. Greeff. 2004. Labile male morphology and intraspecific male polymorphism in the Philotrypesis fig wasps. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 33: 706-718. Melgarejo, P., J. J. Martinez, F. Hernandez, D. M. Salazar, and R. Martinez. 2007. Preliminary results on fig soil-less culture. Sci. Hort. 111: 255-259. O’Hare, T. J. 2002. Interaction of temperature and vegetative flush maturity influences shoot structure and development of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). Hort. Sci. 95: 203-211. O’Hare, T. J. 2004. Impact of root and shoot temperature on bud dormancy and floral induction in lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). Hort. Sci. 99: 21-28. O’Hare, T. J., and G. N. Colin. 2004. Root growth, cytokinin and shoot dormancy in lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). Hort. Sci. 102: 257-266. Rodrigoa, S. P., P. T. Simone, and K. Finn. 2007. An inquiline fig wasp using seeds as a resource for small male production: a potential first step for the evolution of new feeding habits? Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 92: 9-17.
摘要: 愛玉子(Ficus pumila L. var. awkeotsang (Makino) Corner),原產於台灣。種植愛玉苗時,需要種植更大株的苗木並使用微噴灌設備增加愛玉苗的存活率。愛玉子是桑科榕屬植物之一,具幼年性長的特性,其幼年性常常高達三到六年,如何提早開花結果及增加成熟株的產量是接下來愛玉果樹研究的方向。為增加植株存活與生育,本研究探討交叉融合技術,兩株融合成長;對於愛玉植株生育擴張枝幹,三年生交叉融合處的幹直徑為5.5㎝。其隱頭花序需專屬的榕小蜂授粉;愛玉榕小蜂是唯一提供愛玉子榕果的授粉造瘿昆蟲。因愛玉子結果牽涉到愛玉榕小蜂的授粉,許多種植愛玉子的農民未能考慮到授粉的問題。一般而言,愛玉子雌株於七、八月開花,然而愛玉榕小蜂卻於五月、六月族群及活躍達高峰,以致著果率低。為解決授粉問題,需要清楚了解愛玉榕小蜂的習性。現在大部份農民栽種的愛玉子品種,愛玉子產季及授粉季都太集中,導致愛玉子榕果於授粉季常常不能與愛玉榕小蜂同步及配合,導致愛玉子收成不佳。愛玉小蜂之活躍溫度,本研究觀察21℃以上,27℃以下。又因愛玉子雄榕果的生育期,如跨過冬天,因廣義的冬季休眠使得冬季雄榕果的生育期天數變成夏季雄榕果生育期的兩倍時間以上。相同的,冬季授粉的果實授粉期亦延長五、六倍時間。根據新品莊園裡五年間對愛玉子和愛玉榕小蜂的生長跟世代調查結果,顯示愛玉子跟愛玉榕小蜂約兩年五個世代。調查結果建議愛玉子田裏最理想狀況為:在授粉季能每天都要有足夠的愛玉榕小蜂授粉。種植愛玉子的農民也為分散隔年結果的風險,選育愛玉子獲得四季開花結果的品種,以期解決愛玉榕小蜂不足的問題,並增加愛玉子之產量。
Ficus pumila L. var. awkeotsang (Makino) Corner, jelly fig, is native to Taiwan. Plantation of young jelly fig requires large seedling and micro-irrigation system to enhance their survival. Jelly fig is one of the members in genus Ficus (Family Moraceae) and it has a long juvenility, which juvenility can extend from three to six years. How to get fruits earlier and how to increase the fig production would be the further direction in study of jelly fig. To study how can enhance the survival and reproductive rate of jelly fig, apply of vine-crossing technique turns two individuals into one. After 3-year-growth, the diameter of treated branches reaches 5.5 cm. Enclosed infloraence structure of fig needs specific associated wasps to transfer pollens and pollinate. The jelly fig pollinating wasps is a kind of pollinating and gall-making wasp which is specific associated with jelly fig. Owing to fruiting of jelly fig related to its pollinating fig wasp, many farmers have not consider the pollination thus cannot gain reward crop. Generally, female jelly fig flowers in June to August, but activities of jelly fig pollinating fig wasps reaches its peak period at May to July. In order to solve the problem of pollination, we need to know more about the habit of the jelly fig pollinating wasps. Most farmers plant jelly fig strains which exhibit too concentrated production seasons and pollinating seasons, and led to jelly figs and their pollinating wasps cannot synchronize during the pollinating seasons, hence the farmers finally got poor harvest. In this study, field observing the activity of jelly fig pollinating wasps find their active temperatures range from 21℃ to 26℃. If the inter-floral phases of male jelly figs overwinter, the (broad-sense) winter-triggered dormancy turns the inter-floral phase of overwintering, male jelly figs exhibit twice times longer than summer crop. Likewise, the female, overwinter jelly figs extend five to six times longer (compared to summer). According to the five years investigation of jelly figs and its pollinating wasps growth period in Sin-Pin Farm, there are around five generations each two years. The result of investigation suggests that it is ideal if there are sufficient pollinating wasps in the field during the pollinating seasons. To alleviate the risk of the fruiting in next year, farmers hope that the jelly figs strain could all-year-rounded flower and fruit, and it could also solve the deficiency of pollinators during the production seasons and increase the yield of jelly fig production.
其他識別: U0005-1808201017130000
Appears in Collections:園藝學系



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