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Effects of training and NaCl treatment on plant growth, fruit yield and quality of oriental melon(Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa Makino)
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|摘要:||東方型甜瓜(Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa Makino)，除以露天匍匐式栽培，現有於溫網室以直立式栽培，以提升果實品質與產值。本論文對於東方型甜瓜直立式栽培之整枝方式進行研究以建立基本資料，另外為提高溫室栽培之甜瓜品質，研究以EC處理以增加甜瓜糖度之可能性。‘嘉玉’、‘銀輝’甜瓜分別於著果節位上留6、9、12、15片葉及未摘心，隨著留葉數增加，地上部生長情形隨葉數增加而增加，果實重皆以著果上留12及15片葉表現最佳，分別達556~609 g及552~584 g。‘嘉玉’ 果實果肉在著果節位上留12片葉處理者最厚達25.3 mm，‘銀輝’者在著果節位上留12或15片葉者最厚分別達23.5及23.7 mm。兩品種果實糖度最高為著果節位上留12或15片葉者，達13.1~13.5 °Brix。‘嘉玉’、‘銀輝’甜瓜於母蔓第9~10、11~12、13~14、15~16、17~18節位之子蔓留果摘心，兩品種著果部位下植株高度隨著留果節位上升顯著增加，留果節位不顯著影響葉片生長及果實性狀。果實以著果後10天發育速率最快，占總生長量約80~85%，10~18天生長速率開始減緩，占總生長量約12~15%，18天到採收期間則沒有顯著增加。‘嘉玉’甜瓜雙幹整枝，於子蔓5~6、7~8、9~10及11~12節位選留一果並於著果上方各留12及15片葉，果實性狀受到留果節位與著果上留葉數之交感影響，在果重部分以子蔓9~10節位留果，著果節位上留15片葉之631.5 g為最高，其次為11~12節位留果，著果節位上分別留12及15片葉之572.7 g及577 g。‘嘉玉’甜瓜葉片生長隨天數增加而增加，約於第22~29天達最高峰，之後開始老化下降，第15天後第十四片葉之全可溶性糖與澱粉含量大幅減少，第二十一片葉則持續增加顯著高於第十四片葉，15天之後第十四片葉全可溶性糖含量回升至第29天後減少，澱粉含量則無顯著變化。第二十一片葉之全可溶性糖與澱粉含量於調查第29天時並無顯著減少。‘嘉玉’果實著果後第15天果實糖度為5.9~6.2 °Brix，第22天為10.4~10.7 °Brix，第31天成熟採收時增加到13°Brix以上，顯示糖度於果實成熟前十多天才開始大量增加。‘嘉玉’及‘銀杏’於著果後十天澆灌鹽分養液(EC= 6 dS m-1)，處理不顯著影響兩品種營養生長，但在著果上位全葉的含水率則顯著低於對照組。施用鹽分處理之‘嘉玉’果重達818 g 與對照組之770 g無顯著差異，鹽分處理果實糖度達14.1 °Brix顯著高於對照組之13.1 °Brix。鹽分處理‘銀杏’果重達691.7 g 與對照組之750.7 g無顯著差異，鹽分處理果實糖度達14.1 °Brix顯著高於對照組之13.1，鹽分處理使二品種果肉含水率顯著下降約1,45%~1.65%。|
The oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa Makino) is an important species of melon in Taiwan. Rather than culturing the plant outdoors according to its natural creeping growth habit, a cultivation method using a vertical trellis support in a ventilated net/plastic greenhouse resulted in significant improvement in fruit quality and value. This study compared the differences between several trimming techniques when growing oriental melon plants using a vertical trellis support system, and investigated the possibility of using electrical conductivity (EC) treatment to increase the total sugar content in the melon fruit. Two cultivars of oriental melon, ‘Silver Light' and ‘Jill', were used in this study. The plants were either untrimmed, or trimmed to leave 6, 9, 12 or 15 leaves remaining on each shoot. The results showed that as the number of remaining leaves increased, aboveground plant growth improved. In the two cultivars, the plants with 12 and 15 leaves remaining above each fruiting node had the highest fruit weights, at 556.7-609 g and 552.5-584 g, respectively. The flesh thickness of the ‘Jill' cultivar with 12 leaves on each node reached 25.3mm, and that of ‘Silver Light' with 12 and 15 leaves on each node reached 23.5 and 23.7mm, respectively. The sugar content of ‘Jill' and ‘Silver Light' with 12 and 15 leaves on each shoot reached 13.1~13.3°Brix. In both cultivars, the fruit setting node was designated as node 9-10, 11-12, 13-14, 15-16 or 17-18 of the primary branch. The height of the lower part of the plant increased as the fruit setting node position increased, while the node position of the fruit setting did not significantly affect the leaf growth and fruit characteristics. The fruit growth rate was highest during the first 10 days of fruit setting, and accounted for 80-85% of the total growth, while the fruit growth rate during days 10-18 after fruit setting accounted for 12-15% of the total growth, and no further significant increase in growth was observed from day 18 until harvest. When two primary branches were kept, saving one fruit at node 5-6, 7-8, 9-10 or 11-12, and retaining 12 or 15 leaves above the fruiting node of each secondary branches, the fruit setting node position and number of remaining leaves had a combined influence on the characteristics of the fruit. In the ‘Jill', the plants with a fruit setting at node 9-10 of the primary branch and 15 leaves remaining above the fruiting node had the highest fruit weight of 631.5 g, followed by those with a fruit setting at node 11-12 with 12 and 15 leaves above the fruiting node, which had fruit weights of 572.7 g and 577 g, respectively. The bring greatest leaf size of ‘Jill' was days 21-28 after growth, and began to decline thereafter. At day 14, the total soluble sugar and starch contents of the 14th leaf of ‘Jill' was significantly decreased, while those of the 21st leaf continued to increase and were significantly higher than those of the 14th leaf. After day 14, the total soluble sugar content of the 14th leaf rebounded, and kept increasing until day 28; however, no significant change in the starch content was observed. On the other hand, no significant reduction in the total soluble sugar and starch contents of the 21st leaf was seen until day 28. The fruit sugar content of ‘Jill' was 5.9-6.2°Brix on day 15 after fruit setting, 10.4-10.7°Brix on day 22, and 13°Brix on day 31 when the fruits were harvested, which indicated that the fruit sugar content significantly increased approximately >10 days before fruit ripening. Ten days after fruit setting in both cultivars, the plants were treated with liquid salt fertilizer (EC = 6 dS m-1). Liquid salt EC treatment did not significantly affect the plant growth of either cultivar, while the water content of the leaves above the fruit setting node was significantly lower in the treatment group than there in the control. Furthermore, salt-treated ‘Jill' plants had a fruit weight of 818 g, which was not significantly different from that of the control (770 g); however, the treatment fruit had a significantly higher sugar content than that of the control, at 14.1 vs. 13.1°Brix, respectively. Salt-treated ‘Silver light' plants had a fruit weight of 691.7 g, which was not significantly different to that of the control (750.7 g), and the treatment fruit had a significantly higher sugar content than the control group, at 14.1 vs. 13.1°Brix. EC treatment significantly decreased the water content of the fruit flesh by about 1.45-1.65% in both cultivars of melon.
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