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Chilling Injury and Quality of Wax-apple following Cold and Heat Treatment to Disinfest Oriental Fruit Fly
The objectives of this study were to investigate the symptoms and index of chilling injury of wax-apple when wax it was subjected to low temperature. Black-DiamondR wax-apple suffered chilling injury while it was stored at 1℃ for two days. Symptoms of injury were first appeared as small pitting on the pericarp, then developed into large sunken areas and became discolored as the day of storage increased. Sinking of the skin happened earlier than the development of discoloration. The respiration rate of wax-applestored at 1 and 15℃ was low than of at 25℃. But showed an abnormal respiration peak after stored at 1℃ for 3 days. The peak remined abnormally high after storing for 7 days at 1℃ and then back to room ttemperature. The respiration peak of wax-apple fruits, which were produced in Mei-Shan area, was lower than that of the Black-DiamondR when store for 7 days but kept increasing after returned to room temperature. The ethylene production of the injury fruit was similar to the respiration rate, but varied significantly from region to region. Anthocyanin of the fruit peel increased in Black-DiamondR as well as fruits produced in Yi-Lan when store in 1℃ for 7 days, but followed by peel discoloration and decreasing in anthocyanin content 1 day after returned to room temperature. The anthocyanin of wax-apple from Mei-Shan dropped when stored at 1℃ for 4 days, and further decreased at room temperature as time progressing. The electrolyte leakage of Black-DiamondR and Mei-Shan wax-apples was enhanced when stored at 1℃ for 7 day; the occurrence of the increasing in electrolyte leakage and peel sinking of Black-DiamondR were almost simultaneous, while the leakage of fruits from Mei-Shan was after the pitting has happened, and all wax-apple from Yi-Lan had higher leakage after stored at 1、15 and 20℃. The peroxidase activity of wax-apple fruits from Mei-Shan and Yi-Lan increased after storage at 1℃ for 4 and 7 days, and it happened prior to pitting. It seems that the ethylene production and the content of anthocyaninea can be used as indicators of chilling injury of Black-DiamondR and Mei-Shan wax-apple, as peroxidase activity is for fruits from Yi-Lan. In another experiment, Black-DiamondR wax-apple fruits treated with 36℃ hot air for 48 hours before stored at 1℃ for 14 days and this was helpful to reduce the chilling injury and kept the market value. The wax-apple’s core temperature could reach 41.2℃ after hot air（43℃）treatment for 12 hours. The raised core temperature helped to kill the larva of fruit fly. The core temperature was found to be 43.3℃ if hot air treatment was carried out under the increased humidity condition, but the mortality of the larvae was decrease from 100% to 55%. Shading was found to increase the mortality from 55% to 100%. Hot air treatment also slowed down the decay of wax-apple, but the firmness of fruits suffered, and was usually accompanied with off-flavor and discoloration, which could be relieved by storing hot air treated fruits at 9℃ for 3 days after storage at 12℃ for 7 days.
|Appears in Collections:||園藝學系|
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