Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/29236
標題: 改善苦瓜種子發芽之研究
Improvement of Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantic L.)
作者: 何麗敏
Aye, Myint Myint
關鍵字: Bitter Gourd
苦瓜
Seed germination
Presowing treatments
種子發芽率
前處理
出版社: 園藝學系
摘要: 苦瓜種子胚約佔種子60%,子葉小,種皮厚,厚及硬之種皮限制其發芽。本試驗研究,利用種子前處理之方法促進種子發芽,利用果實成熟顏色、後熟時間及種子分級,提升苦瓜種子之品質。 以¢粉青¢、¢青皮¢及¢F-602¢三品種之苦瓜種子為試驗材料。掐開於胚根處之部分種皮並以流水浸種12小時,於30、25、20℃可得到最佳的發芽率。種子以50℃溫水浸種1小時較40或60℃及不同時間處理者有顯著較佳之發芽率。種子以濃硫酸浸漬處理30秒發芽率最高,但浸漬時間超過30秒發芽率則下降。將掐開種子以15%雙氧水浸種25分及未掐開種子以1%雙氧水為種子第一次之發芽水處理有較高之發芽率。利用種子、蛭石2號及0.1%NaOCl之混合,比例為9:12:18(重量百分比),滲調2天,種子發芽速度最快。以掐開種皮流水浸種12小時或不掐開種皮以50℃溫湯浸種1小時,可提高種子萌芽率。 將經過種子前處理之¢粉青¢和¢青皮¢苦瓜種子浸潤於水中,分析12小時期間種子滲漏液之導電度,對照組之種子滲漏液導電度最高,濃硫酸處理次之,流水浸種12小時及50℃溫湯浸種處理者滲漏液之導電度最低,於浸潤24小時後此二處理其內含之酚類物及游離氨基酸皆較其他處理者減少。當種子以50℃水浸種1小時,浸潤液中碳水化合物、總酚類化合物和游離氨基酸顯著較浸種於25℃者多。當種子浸種12小時後,種子內水分含量較浸種24小時者顯著少,呼吸率顯著高及可溶性碳水化合物含量增加。 密度高之種子重量重,且有較高之發芽率並可縮短平均發芽天數。全黃苦瓜果實之0.86-0.88g/cc種子密度者,經後熟24小時後顯著提高發芽率,且平均發芽天數明顯下降。半黃苦瓜果實經72小時後熟處理,於四種密度之種子發芽皆較後熟24天者發芽率較高。半黃苦瓜果實後熟後之種子較全黃苦瓜未後熟果實之種子含可溶性碳水化合物顯著較多。半黃苦瓜果實後熟72小時之種子其碳水化合物較後熟24小時者較高,澱粉含量則較低。半黃果實成熟度及後熟處理對種子密度為0.8 ~0.9g/cc者之種子萌芽力有顯著影響。 採收半黃苦瓜果實,後熟72小時,選擇密度於0.8~0.9g/cc種子,播種前種子以50℃溫湯浸種1小時或掐開種子流水處理12小時,提高發芽率。
Bitter gourd seeds have small cotyledons enclosed in a hard, thick seed coat. Which, limits germination to unacceptably low level. A number of pre-sowing treatments can increase germination by overcoming the limitations imposed by the seed coat. For all three varieties of bitter gourd seeds used in this study, germination at 30, 25and 20℃ were the best when seeds were clipped and soaked in running water for 12 hrs. Seeds immersed in 50oC water for 60 min exhibited significantly higher germination than seeds immersed at other temperatures and for different times. The germination of seeds treated with H2SO4 was the highest after 30 sec of immersion. However, germination decreased as immersion time increased beyond 30 sec. Germination was higher for clipped seeds immersed in 15% H2O2 for 25 min and for unclipped seeds imbibed with 1% H2O2 water. Priming seeds for 2 days with vermiculite No. 2 and NaOCl at a seeds: vermiculite # 2: 0.1% NaOCl ratio of 9:12:18, by weight produced the highest germination rate. The highest emergence rate was achieved with two different treatments of soaking clipped seeds in running water for 12 hr or immersing unclipped seeds in 50°C water for 1 hr. The conductivity of leachate from ‘Fen Ching' and ‘Ching Pi' bitter gourd seeds that were soaked prior to sowing was assayed during the first 12 hr of imbibition. The leachate from control seeds had the highest conductivity, while the leachate from seeds treated with H2SO4 exhibited the second highest conductivity. After imbibition for 12 hr, the lowest conductivity value was obtained from the leachate of seeds that soaked in running water or immersed in 50°C water. In addition, after soaking 24 hr, the leachate from the seeds in these two treatments contained significantly fewer phenolic compounds and free amino acids than the leachate from seeds that received other treatments. When seeds soaked in water for one hr, the soluble carbohydrates, phenolic compound and free amino acids from seeds soaked in 50°C water were significantly more than those in 25°C water. Seeds soaked in water for 12 hr contained significantly less water and more soluble carbohydrates, and had a significantly higher respiration rate than seeds soaked for 24 hr. The densest seeds were also the heaviest seeds and had the highest germination and shortest germination time (MDG). After-ripening significantly increased the germination and decreased the MDG of the densest seeds from completely yellow gourds. For seeds of a given density from half-yellow gourds, the germination of seeds after-ripened for 72 hr was significantly greater than the germination of seeds after-ripened for 24 hr. There were significantly more soluble carbohydrates in seeds from after-ripened, half-yellow gourds, than in seeds from untreated completely yellow gourds. Among seeds from half-yellow gourds, the soluble carbohydrates were highest in seeds from gourds after-ripened 72 hr, and starch content was highest in seeds from gourds after-ripened 24 hr. Seeds from fruit after-ripened 72 hr had the greatest emergence force. The effective and cheap pre-sowing methods were demonstrated in this research for enhancing seeds germination. Bitter gourd seed quality was enhanced by adequate fruit maturity, after ripening and seed density grading. The pre-sowing treatment that increased germination the most and was least expensive was seeds immersed in 50oC water for 60 min.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/29236
Appears in Collections:園藝學系

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