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Effects of Salinity on Plant Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality in Tomato 'Known-You 301' (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)
total soluble solid
試驗一番茄以袋耕栽培提供不同的養液EC值，分別為1.5、2.5和3.5 ms/cm，EC 3.5 ms/cm的處理利用添加大量元素或氯化鈉來調整。結果顯示，EC 1.5-3.5 ms/cm處理間產量沒有差異。EC1.5 ms/cm處理的果實可溶性固形物含量及可滴定酸顯著低於EC 2.5和3.5 ms/cm的處理，且EC 1.5 ms/cm處理的植株生長較差。EC 2.5和3.5 ms/cm的處理果實產量和品質相似，唯利用氯化鈉提高養液EC值至3.5 ms/cm處理的果實有較高的可滴定酸含量。添加大量元素或氯化鈉提高養液EC值至3.5 ms/cm處理的植株，其植株生長和果實產量沒有顯著差異。
試驗二養液中添加氯化鈉至EC值分別為2.5、3.5、4.5及5.5 ms/cm等四種鹽分處理，袋耕番茄植株總產量分別為1306、903、886及809 g/plant，其可售果產量分別為934、716、654及513 g/plant，因此番茄產量隨著處理的養液EC值增高而減少。此外，鹽分處理使果實鮮重下降及增加尻腐病發生率，但總果實數沒有顯著差異。果實可溶性固形物和可滴定酸含量隨著養液EC值提高而增加，EC 5.5 ms/cm處理的果實可溶性固形物和可滴定酸含量高於EC 2.5 ms/cm分別為20 %和26 %。植株的生育顯著受到鹽分處理的影響，以EC 4.5和5.5 ms/cm的處理葉鮮重、葉面積和葉面積比顯著減少。葉片光合成速率、氣孔導度和蒸散速率亦隨著鹽分處理的增加而顯著下降。水耕栽培提供不同的養液EC值及鹽分處理開始的時間發現，始花期進行鹽分處理會使單株總產量和可售果產量顯著減少，並且果實尻腐病的發生率顯著增加。
The objectives of this study was to improve tomato fresh quality by increasing medium EC value. Experiment 1 tomato ‘known-You 301' were grown in bag culture and watered with different nutrient solution EC values 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 ms/cm, respectively. EC 3.5 ms/cm of nutrient solution was adjusted with addition of major nutrient or sodium chloride to basic nutrient solution. The results showed the EC 1.5-3.5 ms/cm of nutrient solution no significant effect on yield. However, the total soluble solids, titrable acidity and EC values of fruit juice from plant treated with EC 2.5 and 3.5 ms/cm of nutrient solution higher than EC 1.5 ms/cm. The yield and fruit quality were similar between EC 2.5 and 3.5 ms/cm of nutrient solution. Salinity of nutrient solution adjusted with major nutrients or sodium chloride had no significant different on yield and plant growth. Experiment 2 tomato ‘known-You 301' were grown in bag culture and watered with nutrient solution amended with sodium chloride to 2.5, 3.5, 4.5 and 5.5 ms/cm. Results indicated that both total fruited yield and marketable yield decreased as nutrient solution salinity increased. Total fruited yields of the plants with EC 2.5, 3.5, 4.5 and 5.5 ms/cm of nutrient solution were 1306, 903, 886 and 809 g/plant, respectively and total marketable yield was 934, 716, 654 and 513, respectively. Yield were adversely affected by increased EC values of nutrient solution. The effect of salinity on average fruit weight followed the same trends as total fruited yield and marketable yield. However, the total fruit number per plant was not affected. The total soluble solids and titratable acidity of fruit juice increased as salinity increased.The total soluble solids and titratable acidity of fruits from plant treated with EC 5.5 ms/cm was 20% and 26% higher than those treated EC 2.5 ms/cm. However, blossom-end rot increased at higher EC values. Salinity treatments also affect plant vegetable growth significantly. The most evident EC effect was found on the reduction of leaf expansion. The leaf freash weight, leaf area and specific leaf area of individual leaf treated with EC 4.5 and 5.5 ms/cm was less than treated with EC 2.5 and 3.5 ms/cm. The photosynthesis rates, stomatal conductances and transpiration rates of leaf decrease as increase EC values of nutrient solution. Tomato ‘known-You 301' were grown in water culture and the plant was supplied with EC 2.5, 3.5, 4.5 and 5.5 ms/cm of nutrient solution at three times. Treatments were applied during start flowering of the first cluster, 15 days of after flowering, and 30 days after flowering. The total fruit yields and marketable yields were reduced significantly when salinity treatment was started at flowering of the first cluster. Tomato ‘known-You 301' were grown in bag culture and watered with different salinity not significant effect on leaf macronutrient content, but grown in water culture significant reduced nitrogen, calcium and potassium content of leaf. No matter bag culture or water culture, salinity increased potassium content, but reduced calcium content of fruit. The sodium content of leaf and fruit was increased as salinity increased, and when salinity treatment was started at flowering of the first cluster higher than treated with 15 day of after flowering, and 30 day after flowering.
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