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Fabrication of Highly Anti-Reflection Micro-Nano Multistructure Array for Silicon Solar Cell
Two-stage metal-assisted-etching method
Antireflective layer with a planar nanowire array
Antireflective layer of a micro-nano hybrid structure array
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(1) 平面奈米線陣列結構製作：以兩階段輔助蝕刻於六吋矽基板表面成功製作高抗反射之平面矽奈米線陣列結構，製程時間僅為15分鐘，矽奈米線陣列於光波長200 – 1000 nm 之平均反射率可降至1.89%，於紫外光與可見光之平均反射率分別為1.49%與1.89%，且於紅外光波長範圍可達2.32%之平均反射率。
(2) 微奈米複合陣列結構製作：以兩階段輔助蝕刻於六吋矽基板之金字塔結構表面成功製作高抗反射之微奈米複合陣列結構，並且大幅縮短兩階段蝕刻製程時間至5分鐘以內，微奈米陣列於光波長200 – 1000 nm 之平均反射率可降至1.21%，於紫外光與可見光之平均反射率分別為0.74%與1.12%，且於紅外光波長範圍亦可達1.97%之平均反射率。
(3) 高抗反射之矽晶太陽能電池製作：以低成本之液體擴散源於微奈米複合陣列結構製作P-N junction，並成功整合抗反射結構開發高抗反射之矽晶太陽能電池，微奈米複合結構矽晶片可吸收較多光子，使得光電轉換效率可達9.019 %，較金字塔結構矽晶片提升59 % 之短路電流，入射光子轉換效率量測結果顯示微奈米結構電池於紅外光波長範圍具有極佳之外部量子效率。
The object of this paper to develop a high- antireflection silicon solar cell using the single-stage and two-stage metal assisted etching methods, respectively. The major research topics are : (1) Fabrication of an antireflective layer with a planar nanowire array (2) Fabrication of an antireflective layer of a micro-nano hybrid structure array (3) Fabrication of a high antireflection silicon solar cell combining a P-N junction formed using a cost-effective liquid diffusion source with the micro-nano hybrid structure array. (1) Fabrication of an antireflective layer with a planar nanowire array : A novel two-stage metal-assisted etching (MAE) method is proposed for the fabrication of a high anti-reflection silicon nanowire array. In the first stage of etching, a high-concentration etchant is implemented in a short etching time to enable the uniform and complete deposition of coniferous-like silver on the wafer surface. Following the first stage, a low-concentration etchant for producing a vertical and uniform silicon nanowire array is processed in a relatively long etching time. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed two-stage MAE method can produce high anti-reflection silicon nanowire array on a 6" silicon wafer requiring only a relatively simple and low-cost process. The P-type high-resistance (PH) silicon wafer that is etched under the two-stage MAE with the first-stage and second-stage processing time of 30 s and 15 min, respectively, can achieve an average reflectivity of 1.89% for the light spectrum from 200 nm to 1000 nm. In the UV and visible-light regions, the average reflectivity are 1.49% and 1.89%, respectively. (2) Fabrication of an antireflective layer of a micro-nano hybrid structure array: The developed two-stage MAE method is further used for the fabrication of an antireflective layer of a micro-nano hybrid structure array. The processing time for the etching on a N-type high-resistance (NH) silicon wafer can be reduced to less than 5 min. The resulting micro-nano hybrid structure array can achieve an average reflectivity of 1.21% for the light spectrum from 200 nm to 1000 nm. In the UV and visible-light regions, the average reflectivity are 0.74% and 1.12%, respectively. The average reflectivity in the IR region can be reduced to 1.97 %. (3) Fabrication of a high antireflection silicon solar cell : A P-N junction on a fabricated micro-nano hybrid structure array is formed using a low-cost liquid diffusion source. A high antireflection silicon solar cell with an average efficiency of 13% can be achieved attributed to the high light-absorbing capability of the micro-nano hybrid structure. When compared to a pyramid structure solar cell, the shorted circuit current of the proposed solar cell is increased by 73%. The measured Incident light conversion efficiency indicates that the proposed solar cell has an excellent external quantum efficiency in the IR region. The major advantage of the proposed two-stages MAE method is that a high anti-reflective silicon solar cell can be fabricated in a relatively short time and cost-effective manner when compared with the conventional fabrication approach. The fabricated silicon solar cells possess very good light-absorbing capability in the UV, visible-light, as well as the IR regions. It is feasible that the proposed method can be applied to the mass production process of low-cost solar cells.
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