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Effect of Root Temperature on Growth of Melon (Cucumis melo L.) and Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)
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In summer, heat stress can cause negative effects on crop growth and fruit quality. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of root temperature on plant growth and development of oriental melon ‘Jill’ and tomato ‘YU NU’. The experiments were conducted in summer (June-August) and autumn (August-October). A significant increase in plant height and growth rate but not in leaf area were observed when root temperature was lowered to 23±2℃. Root respiration rate of treated plants with root temperature lowered to 23±2℃ increased significantly, but the activity of the treated root showed no significant difference from control and this might be explained by microorganism interference. No significant difference on root fresh and dry weight between treatment and control can be observed before anthesis; however, leaf fresh and dry weight after harvest was significantly deceased by 30 and 16%, respectively, compared with control. Carbohydrate content was not statistically different between treatment and control. In autumn, the total soluble solid of the root-treated fruits was significantly decreased relative to the control . Mineral elements between treatment and control plants were not significantly different. Growing in a growth chamber with a constant temperature of 30℃, plant showed higher plant height, leaf number, leaf area, leaf extension, root length, fresh and dry weight than those grown in a growth chamber with a 20/15℃ day/night temperature. The root activity and root respiration rate in plants under 30℃ were significantly decrease 79 and 42%, respectively, compared with those grown at 20/15℃ day/night temperature. The carbohydrate content was not significantly influenced by temperature. The mineral content was significantly higher in plants under 30℃ suggested root temperature could affect mineral absorption. Furthermore, tomato plants with or without treatment of lowered root temperature at 20±2℃and with or without application of 300 ppm glutathione showed no significant difference in plant height, leaf number and fruit quality.
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