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|標題:||Life Tables of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), Population Growth and Dispersal in Field and Screen Houses, and Simulation of Management Based on Life Table|
銀葉粉蝨（Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring）之生命表、網室及田間族群成長與分散及以生命表為基礎之防治模擬
Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring
|摘要:||本研究以年齡齡期兩性生命表理論分析銀葉粉蝨Bemisia argentifolii Bellow & Perring (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)於番茄上之生命表及族群變動，並應用藥劑防治試驗結果及經濟限界（economic threshold, ET），以電腦模擬分析銀葉粉蝨於網室栽培番茄上之最佳防治時機，有效降低防治成本並增加收益。銀葉粉蝨於六種不同溫度條件下15, 20, 25, 28, 30及 35℃之內在增值率（r）分別為-0.0176、0.0667、0.1469、0.1611、0.1745及0.0989/天。淨增殖率分別為0.16、24.8、63.8、58.3、46.6及5.68。不同溫度下總繁殖率（gross reproductive rate，GRR）、淨增殖率（net reproductive rate，R0）及成蟲前期（preadult）存活率（la）為GRR>la ∙GRR>R0。在六種溫度下成長，其平均世代時間分別為81.9、48.6、28.4、25.3、22.1及18.2天；新生個體之期望壽命分別為58.4、47.2、31.8、32.6、28.5及18.0天。不同溫度下卵期之發育率符合線性方程式，其熱積溫（thermal summation）為89.2℃-天，且其發育最低溫為11.4℃。若蟲期發育率符合Stinner等人的模式，其參數C、Rmax、k1及k2分別為0.085、0.0833、5.298及-0.263。為了瞭解銀葉粉蝨於實驗室狀態與網室或田間狀態之差異，於兩處田間及一處網室內分別研究其生命表。其內在增值率（r）分別為0.0807、0.1072及0.1256/天。平均世代時間20.8、21.62及20.97天。新生個體之期望壽命分別為23.4、18.6及22.1天。分散試驗結果顯示銀葉粉蝨成蟲於24小時內至少可以分散3公尺，並於分散後迅速於新植株上產卵。以起始密度20粒卵於網室番茄上之族群增長試驗，其族群結構與25℃之模擬結果相似。以每株番茄20隻成蟲之經濟限界(economic threshold)模擬防治結果顯示，20℃下僅需於第54天施藥一次；25℃下則需於第26、43及58天施藥；28℃則需於第26、42及56天施藥防治，才能將成蟲密度降至經濟界線之下。農藥處理試驗區顯示卵、若蟲及成蟲於葉片上為聚集型分布，其variance/mean 比值高於5.5。於無處理農藥之試驗區內，所有發育期顯示顯著性的聚集型分布，其variance/mean 比值高於11.3。於網室無處理藥劑試驗區，每株番茄上粉蝨最高僅有0.1隻成蟲，番茄黃化捲葉病毒(tomato yellow leaf curl virus, TYLCV) 感染率只有5%。然而在田間無處理藥劑之試驗田各發育期最高密度分別為9.3 卵/株、12.3若蟲/株以及3.5成蟲/株，於試驗後期TYLCV的感染率為90%。農藥藥效實驗結果顯示阿巴汀對粉蝨若蟲之LC50 為 3.88 mg (AI)/liter，LC90則為1.54 mg (AI)/liter；益達胺對粉蝨若蟲之LC50為 3.6 mg (AI)/liter；卵期對兩種藥劑都不敏感。以番茄生長之葉片數為基礎建立之ET方程式為ET = 24.0307 + 100.7306/(1 + 32.2155 * e (-0.0962 * t))。以ET為防治基準之防治策略於本試驗番茄生長期中僅需施用一次益達胺防治藥劑即可有效防治粉蝨。並較每週施用藥劑之農民每週施藥法每公頃增加收益24,545元。以生命表及ET為基礎之電腦模擬可提供有效之銀葉粉蝨防治時機並降低生產成本。|
The life history of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on tomato was studied based on the age-stage, two-sex life table at 15, 20, 25, 28, 30, and 35℃. The intrinsic rate of increase (r) at these temperatures is -0.0176, 0.0667, 0.1469, 0.1611, 0.1745, and 0.0989 d-1, respectively. The relationship among the gross reproductive rate (GRR), the net reproductive rate (R0) and the preadult survivorship (la) is consistent with for all results at different temperatures. The mean generation time is 81.9, 48.6, 28.4, 25.3, 22.1, and 18.2 days, respectively. The developmental rate of the egg stage at different temperatures fit a linear equation with a thermal summation 89.2 degree-day and a developmental threshold of 11.4℃. The developmental rates of the nymph stage fit Stinner et al.'s model and the parameters of C, Rmax, k1, k2 were 0.085, 0.0833, 5.298, and -0.263, respectively. To reveal the differences among the life tables under laboratory, screen house and field conditions, life history data of B. argentifolii on tomato were collected in a screen house and in the field. In the screen house, the intrinsic rate of increase was 0.1171 d-1, the net reproductive rate (R0) was 11.1 offspring/individual, the mean generation time (T) was 20.8 d, and the life expectancy of newborn was 22.4 d. Population parameters were also obtained for B. argentifolii kept in cages in two fields. The intrinsic rates of increase were 0.0769 and 0.1024 day-1, the net reproductive rates were 5 and 9.8 offspring/individual, and the mean generation times were 21.8 and 22.6 d. Significant differences were found for the life tables generated under screen house, field, and laboratory conditions. In the dispersal experiment, adults of B. argentifolii were found to be capable of dispersing at least 3 m within a 24 h period. Immediately after dispersal, adults are able to oviposit on the new host plant. The population growth initialized with 20 eggs showed similar stage structure to the simulation based on the age-stage, two-sex life table at 25℃. Results of computer simulation showed that a single treatment on the 54th day after the first adult was detected would keep the pest population below the economic threshold (20 adults/plant) at 20℃for a period of 60 days. At 25℃, however, three treatments, i.e., on the 26th, 43rd and 58th day, would be necessary to keep the pest population below the same economic threshold. At 28℃, three treatments on the 26th, 42nd and 56th day are sufficient for control. In pesticide-treated fields, eggs, nymphs and adults showed an aggregated distribution with a variance/mean ratio up to 5.5. In untreated fields, all developmental stages showed significant aggregated distribution with the highest variance/mean ratio of 11.3. In untreated screen houses, the highest density was only 0.1 adult/plant, and the infection rate of TYLCV (tomato yellow leaf curl virus) was only 5%. However, in untreated fields, the highest density of developmental stages was 9.3 eggs/plant, 12.3 nymphs and 3.5 adults respectively, and, by the end of the experiment, the infection rate of TYLCV was 90%. The LC50 of abamectin to the nymphal stage of B. argentifolii is 3.88 mg (AI)/liter, and the LC90 is 15.4 mg (AI)/liter. The LC50 of imidacloprid to nymphal stage is 3.6 mg (AI)/liter. The adult stage is more susceptible to both insecticides, while the egg stage is non-susceptible to all tested concentrations. The economic threshold (ET) equation based on the growth of tomato is described as a function of time: ET = 24.0307 + 100.7306/(1 + 32.2155 e -0.0962 t). The control strategy based on ET and computer simulation shows that a single application of imidacloprid is sufficient to control B. argentifolii in screen house. It increases a profit of 24,545 NT/ha in comparison with routine weekly control practiced by most farmers. Computer simulation of population growth based on life tables incorporating ET provides the efficient timing of control; it reduces the cost of control and increases the profit of farming.
|Appears in Collections:||昆蟲學系|
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