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標題: 偽菜蚜之族群生長與分散
Population Growth and Dispersal of Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Homoptera: Aphididae)
作者: 林瑩琦
Lin, Ying-Chi
關鍵字: population growth
life table
Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.)
出版社: 昆蟲學系
摘要: 偽菜蚜 (Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.))在26℃定溫下之內在增殖率 (r)為0.35 day-1,淨增殖率 (R0)為61.3 offspring / female,平均世代時間(T)為11.6 days。將偽菜蚜分別飼育於三種不同環境條件、三個不同生長期之單株芥藍 (Brassica alboglabra Bail var. acephala DC.)上以研究在食物及空間受到限制下族群增長與芥藍生長的情形。結果顯示以26℃生長箱中所得生命表所模擬的族群增長情形遠高於在生長箱中所飼育的偽菜蚜族群,在室外偽菜蚜族群則增長較模擬者快,由此可知偽菜蚜在室外的族群增長能力較生長箱中好。研究結果亦顯示,三個不同生長期的芥藍並不會影響偽菜蚜之族群增長,室內兩個實驗溫度下的偽菜蚜族群增長亦相似,但室外組的偽菜蚜族群增長則明顯較室內組為高。室內組的芥藍植株因偽菜蚜的取食而死亡率較高且生長受到抑制,室外組的芥藍在偽菜蚜分散前,並沒有生長受抑制的情形,偽菜蚜的族群增長亦較好。 另在網室中觀察偽菜蚜之分散對族群增長之影響,與26℃生命表所模擬之族群狀況比較,發現網室內之偽菜蚜族群雖然因在室外環境下,剛開始之增長速率較高,但因分散作用增加族群的死亡率,使網室內的族群數逐漸低於模擬的族群數。本結果亦顯示植株行距較小時,偽菜蚜在分散過程中的死亡率較低。
The intrinsic rate of increase (r), the net reproduction rate (R0), and the mean generation time (T) for Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) are 0.35 day-1, 61.3 offspring / female and 11.6 days at 26℃, respectively. The population growth of L. erysimi and it's effect on the growth of common kale (Brassica alboglabra Bail var. acephala DC.) are observed by rearing L. erysimi on three different growth stages of common kale plants under three conditions. Using the result from life table of L. erysimi at 26 ℃ to simulate the population growth, the simulated population growth is faster than the observed ones in growth chamber. However, the population growth of L. erysimi in the field is faster than the simulated one. The results also showed that the population growth of L. erysimi on common kale of different stages is similar in growth chamber at 14℃, 26℃ and in the field. There is no significant difference between 14℃ and 26℃, too. But the population grows faster in the field than in growth chamber. The growth of common kale is inhibited and the plants have higher mortality in growth chamber. The growth of common kale in the field is not inhibited before the dispersal of aphids. The effect of dispersal on the population growth of L. erysimi was studied in the screen house experiment. The population growth in screen house is faster than that of simulated one at the beginning period. After a few days, because of the mortality due to dispersal, the population growth becomes slower than the simulated one. The results also showed that the shorter the row distance, the lower the mortality due to dispersal.
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