Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/30666
DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor林政行zh_TW
dc.contributor卓逸民zh_TW
dc.contributor趙榮台zh_TW
dc.contributor.advisor楊曼妙zh_TW
dc.contributor.author黃博森zh_TW
dc.contributor.authorHuang, Personen_US
dc.contributor.other中興大學zh_TW
dc.date2007zh_TW
dc.date.accessioned2014-06-06T07:39:51Z-
dc.date.available2014-06-06T07:39:51Z-
dc.identifierU0005-2107200612580500zh_TW
dc.identifier.citation丘明智。2004。武陵地區溪流之水棲昆蟲群聚結構及水質監測。國立中學大學昆蟲系。碩士論文。95頁。 中央氣象局。2003。中華民國九十二年氣候資料年報。中央氣象局。27頁。 王文明。2004。雅美人對蘭嶼植被的影響。國立台南師範學院自然教育學系。碩士論文。133頁。 王相華、張勵婉、高瑞卿。2003。蘭嶼達悟族之森林作業方式對林分結構、組成之影響。國家公園學報 13: 75-94。 范姜俊承。2005。蘭嶼紅頭溪水生及半水生昆蟲多樣性與昆蟲多樣性研究之評論。國立中興大學昆蟲學系。碩士論文。41頁。 柳榗、楊遠波。1974。臺灣附屬島嶼與本島植物區系之關係。中華林學季刊7: 69-114。 陳正祥。1993。臺灣地誌 (下冊)。南天書局。1239-1267頁。 張慶恩。1987。蘭嶼種子植物在植物地理上的位置。台灣植物資源與保育論文集。85-95頁。 齊心、黃玉冰、戴佑達、吳宜穎、劉人瑋。2003。由國內生物多樣性論文談生物多樣性研究。生態系經營-永久樣區理論與實務探討研討會。335-360頁。 蔡宗穎。2004。雅美人森林經營對蜘蛛多樣性之影響。私立東海大學生命科學系。碩士論文。39頁。 鄭漢文、呂勝由。2000。蘭嶼島雅美民族植物。地景企業股份有限公司。268頁。 謝易霖。2005。明潭地區昆蟲多樣性與分析-以科級分類群為基礎。國立中學大學昆蟲學系。碩士論文。80頁。 蘇鴻傑、何孟基。1982。蘭嶼、綠島風景特定區植物生態資源之調查與分析。國立台灣大學森林學系森林生態研究室。56頁。 Borror, D. J., C. A. Triplehorn, and N. F. Johnson. 1989. An introduction to the study of insects, 6th ed. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Bray, J. R., and J. T. Curtis. 1957. An ordination of the upland forest communities of southern Wisconsin. Ecological Monographs 27: 325-349. Carver, M., G.. F. Gross, and T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera. pp.429-509. In CSIRO, The insects of Australia. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. Clarke, K. R., and R. H. Green. 1988. Statistical design and analysis for a ‘biological effects’ study. Marine Ecology Progress Series 46: 213-226. Clarke, K.R., and R. M. Warwick. 2001. Change in marine communities: an approach to statistical analysis and interpretation, 2nd ed. Technical report, PRIMER-E, Plymouth, UK. Eyre, M. D., J. C. Woodward, and M. L. Luff. 2001. The distribution of grassland Auchenorrhyncha assemblages (Homoptera: Cercopidae, Cicadellidae, Delphacidae) in northern England and Scotland. Journal of Insect Conservation 5: 37-45. Gorham, L. E., S. L. King, B. D. Keeland, and S. Mopper. 2002. Effect of canopy gaps and flooding on homopterans in a bottomland hardwood forest. Wetland 22: 541-549. Hamilton, K. G. A., and C. F. Morales. 1992. Fauna of New Zealand: Cercopidae (Insecta: Homoptera). Manaaki Whenua Press. New Zealand. Heck, K. L. J., G. Van Belle, and D. Simberloff. 1975. Explicit calculation of the rarefaction diversity measurement and the determination of sufficient sample size. Ecology 56: 1459-1461. Hzh_TW
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11455/30666-
dc.description.abstractOrchid Island is 82 km off the southeast coast of Taitung, Taiwan and its forests are the northernmost tropical forests in East Asia. In this study, the diversity of homopteran insects which are recognized as insects of hemipteran Auchenorrhyncha and Sternorrhyncha according to current taxonomic system, in natural forest, cultivated woodland, secondary woodland and grassland in Orchid Island was compared. In the northern, eastern, and southern part of the island, we established sampling plots in the aforementioned four habitat types and collected insects in January, April, July, and October of 2003. Methods used in collecting homopteran insects included canopy bagging and shaking, sweeping net and light trapping. A total of 6,036 individual homopterans belonging to 20 families and 147 morphological species were collected. Among all habitat types, the secondary woodland had the highest number of species, followed by cultivated woodland and grassland. The natural forest had the lowest number of species. The secondary woodland also had the highest abundance in term of number of individuals, followed by cultivated woodland and natural forest. The grassland had the lowest number of abundance. The highest values of Shannon-Wiener index and Simpson index were obtained for the grassland habitat and a similar pattern was also shown for rarefaction analysis. The results of the MDS and ANOSIM analyses showed that there were significant differences in the composition of homopteran insects between habitat types, except the contrast between the cultivated woodland and the secondary woodland. Results of the UPGMA analysis also showed the same pattern. In this study, there was a bias in the sampling methods and such bias might have influence on the results. For example, light trapping could potentially be affected by factors such as the visual and flight ability of insects and vegetation structure of the habitat. Nevertheless, when applying canopy bagging-and-shaking, collection were only conducted on dominant tree species in cultivated and secondary woodlands, while the sampling trees were chosen randomly in natural forest. Such sampling bias might explain why the results here deviated from the traditional view of a higher diversity in natural forests. On the other hand, the total number of species in four habitat types has not been acquired since the species cumulation curve of homopteran insects has not reached an asymptote in each habitat and an unbiased relative abundance among different habitats could not be guarantined. Consequently, it is inappropriate to calculate any diversity index based on such data. The population density and age structure of insects usually fluctuate seasonally and therefore there is no consistency in relative abundance of every species. Under such conditions, it is not appropriate to use simple indices and probabilistic statistics to analyze and to interpret insect diversity. In conducting biodiversity studies, in addition to basic taxonomic survey, the change of species composition and fluctuation of relative abundances should be assessed based on ecological methods and food chain structure for biodiversity studies. Only through such comprehensive approaches can we make a solid contribution to the biodiversity research.en_US
dc.description.abstract蘭嶼距離台灣的東南方約82公里,島上的森林為東南亞分布最北端的熱帶季風雨林。本文研究蘭嶼地區天然林、撫育林、薪柴林及草原之同翅目 (即相當於現今分類體系所認可的半翅目之頸吻亞目及腹吻亞目) 昆蟲多樣性。在蘭嶼的北、東、南三個地區,分別選取上述四種類型的棲地,於2003年一月、四月、七月及十月進行調查。採集方法包含撈網、掃網及短波長燈光誘集。共採集同翅目昆蟲20科147形態種6,036隻。同翅目物種數以薪柴林最多,其次為撫育林、草原,而天然林最少;個體數亦以薪柴林最多,其次為撫育林、天然林,而草原最少。Shannon-Wiener index及Simpson index之值皆以草原最高,其次為薪柴林、撫育林,而天然林最低;rarefaction分析之結果亦相同。MDS及ANOSIM之分析結果顯示僅天然林與草原的同翅目昆蟲組成有差異,UPGMA亦呈現相同結果。由於燈光誘集受限於昆蟲之視覺及飛行能力與棲地結構,而本文之撈網採集在撫育林及薪柴林僅選取優勢樹種採集,在天然林則為隨機採樣,這些可能導致誤差的原因或許可以解釋本文之結果與一般天然棲地生物多樣性較高之概念不符。本研究雖然所採獲之同翅目物種及個體數相當多,但由物種累積曲線的趨勢來看,各棲地的總種數都還無法確定,而所使用的採集方法也無法保證調查的所有物種數量確實為各棲地中之相對豐度;且昆蟲的族群密度與齡期結構均隨季節而變動,各物種間並無固定之相對豐度。由於多樣性指數或統計無法正確的分析與解釋昆蟲多樣性,故多樣性的研究除基礎物種調查外,以生態學的方法和食物鏈的結構來研究影響物種組成及相對豐度變動的原因,會對生物多樣性的研究更有貢獻。zh_TW
dc.description.tableofcontents著作權聲明書 i 中文摘要 ii 英文摘要 iv 表目次 vii 圖目次 viii 附錄目次 ix 前言 1 材料與方法 4 一、蘭嶼環境概述 4 二、棲地描述 4 三、採集方法及樣區設置 7 四、調查期間 9 五、標本鑑定 9 六、分析方法 9 結果與討論 14 一、昆蟲組成 14 二、同翅目物種組成及數量分布 15 三、多樣性分析 21 結論 31 引用文獻 33 表目次 表一、蘭嶼四種棲地同翅目昆蟲組成 39 表二、蘭嶼四種棲地同翅目昆蟲組成、Jaccard index及Bray-Curtis dissimilarity 40 表三、蘭嶼撫育林及薪柴林的優勢植物樹冠層同翅目形態種組成及個體數 41 表四、蘭嶼各樣區之同翅目昆蟲形態種數、個體數、Shannon-Wiener index和Simpson index 43 表五、蘭嶼四種棲地不同採集方法所得之同翅目昆蟲物種及個體數量之pair-wise ANOSIM 44 圖目次 圖一、蘭嶼地圖與調查樣區之位置圖 45 圖二、燈光誘集陷阱的結構圖 46 圖三、蘭嶼各棲地昆蟲季節組成 47 圖四、蘭嶼各採集方法昆蟲物種及數量組成 48 圖五、蘭嶼不同採集方法總和昆蟲各目組成百分比 49 圖六、蘭嶼各棲地同翅目昆蟲物種累積圖 50 圖七、蘭嶼不同地區各棲地同翅目形態種昆蟲組成 51 圖八、蘭嶼北、東、南三地區各棲地同翅目昆蟲rarefaction曲線比較圖 52 圖九、蘭嶼各棲地同翅目昆蟲rarefaction曲線比較圖 53 圖十、蘭嶼不同棲地同翅目昆蟲多樣性Bray-Curtis dissimilarity的UPGMA分析歸群圖 54 圖十一、綜合各地區與各採集方法所得之同翅目昆蟲物種組成之MDS圖形 55 圖十二、綜合各地區與各採集方法所得之Bray-Curtis dissimilarity相對於圖十一MDS各點距離之Shepard圖形 附錄目次 附錄一、蘭嶼北、東、南三地區各棲地各採集方法之同翅目形態種組成及個體數 57 附錄二、蘭嶼天然林、撫育林及薪柴林之植物組成 65 附錄三、蘭嶼天然林、撫育林及薪柴林植物組成、Jaccard index及Bray-Curtis dissimilarity 66zh_TW
dc.language.isoen_USzh_TW
dc.publisher昆蟲學系所zh_TW
dc.subject蘭嶼zh_TW
dc.subjecthttp://etds.lib.nchu.edu.tw/etdservice/view_metadata?etdun=U0005-2107200612580500en_US
dc.subject生物多樣性zh_TW
dc.subject同翅目昆蟲zh_TW
dc.subject熱帶季風雨林zh_TW
dc.title蘭嶼四種棲地同翅目昆蟲相與物種多樣性研究之評論zh_TW
dc.titleHomopteran Fauna of Four Habitats on Orchid Island with Critiques on Species Diversity Researchesen_US
dc.typeThesis and Dissertationzh_TW
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