請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/30700
標題: Comparison of infectivity of two entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema abbasi and S. carpocapsae, against immature stage of Ctenocephalides felis (Bouche) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae)
兩種蟲生線蟲Steinernema abbasi及S. carpocapsae對貓蚤(蚤目:蚤科)幼蟲期侵染力之比較
作者: 陳俐蓁
Chen, Li Chen
關鍵字: 貓蚤
出版社: 昆蟲學系所
引用: 于心、葉瑞玉、謝杏初。1990。新疆蚤目誌。新疆人民出版社,烏魯木齊。542頁。 丘雪紅、韓日疇。2007。昆蟲病原線蟲資源概況和分類技術進展。昆蟲學報50: 286-296。 吳文哲。2006。蚤類之危害及防治。環境用藥及病媒防治技術研討會論文集。pp. 173-187。 吳文哲、徐孟豪。2006。跳蚤之生態與防治。入侵紅火蟻及環境衛生害蟲防治研習會。pp. 44-52。 吳文哲、徐孟豪、許洞慶。1991。貓蚤的生態與防治。中華昆蟲特刊第六號第四屆病媒防治技術研討會論文集。pp. 49-65。 呂佳宜。1994。蟲生線蟲(Steinernema carpocapsae)之人工繁殖及對斜紋夜盜(Spodoptera litura)與小菜蛾(Plutella xylostella)之致病力。國立中興大學昆蟲學研究所碩士論文。54 pp.。 徐孟豪、許洞慶、吳文哲。1993。台北市貓蚤(Ctenocephalides felis (Bouche))之季節消長。中華昆蟲13: 59-67。 張仁川。2000。台灣地區各縣市家犬及流浪犬數目調查。國立台灣大學獸醫學系碩士論文。123 pp.。 黃育仁。2003。本土產蟲生線蟲(Steinernema abbais)及白殭菌(Beauveria bassiana) 感染黃條葉蚤(Phyllotreta striolata)之研究。國立中興大學昆蟲學研究所碩士論文。80 pp. 。 劉婉君。2005。蟲生線蟲Steinernema abbasi (Rhabditida目: Steinernematidae科)共生菌之毒力與抗菌活性。國立中興大學昆蟲學研究所碩士論文。72 pp. 。 蕭文鳳、侯豐男。1994。蟲生線蟲殺蟲劑在害蟲管理上之應用。生物農藥研究與發展研討會專刊。11-1-35。 魏洪義、王國漢。1993。斯氏線蟲對黃曲條跳甲田間種群的控制作用。植物保護學報 20: 61-64。 Adams, B. J., and D. B. Nguyen. 2002. Taxonomy and Systematics. pp. 1-33. In: R. Gaugler, ed. Entomopathogenic Nematology. CABI Press, London. Amin, O. M. 1976. Host associations and seasonal occurrence of fleas from southeastern Wisconsin mammals, with observations on morphologic variations. J. Med. Entomol. 13: 179-192. Appel, A. G., E. P. Benson, J. M. Ellenberger, and S. A. Manweiler. 1993. Laboratory and field evaluations of anentomogenous nematode (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) for German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) control. J. Econ. Entomol. 86: 777-784. Baur, M. E., H. K. Kaya, and G. S. Thurston. 1995. Factors affecting entomopathogenic nematode infection of Plutella xylostella on a leaf surface. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 77: 239-250. Blackmon, D. M., and M. P. Nolan. 1984. Ctenocephalides felis infestation in Holstein calves. Agric. Pract. 5: 6-8. Brown, I. M., and R. Gaugler. 1995. Cold tolerance of steinernematid and heterorhabditid nematodes. J. Therm. Biol. 23: 75-80. Byron, D. W., and W. H. Robinson. 1986. Research on household flea control. Pest Manage. 5: 29-31. Campbell, L. R., and R. Gaugler. 1991a. Role of the sheath in desiccation tolerance of two entomopathogenic nematode. Nematologica 37: 324-332. Campbell, L. R., and R. Gaugler. 1991b. Mechanisms for exsheathment of entomopathogenic nematodes. Int. J. Parasitol. 21: 219-224. Cappaert, D. C., and A. M. Koppenhofer. 2003. Steinernema scarabaei, an entomopathogenic nematode for control of the European chafer. Biol. Contr. 28: 379-386. Chi, H. 1997. Computer program for the probit analysis. National Chung Hsing University. Taichung, Taiwan. ( Clarke, D. J., and B. C. A. Dowds. 1995. Virulence mechanisms of Photorhabdus sp. Strain K122 toward wax moth moth larvae. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 66: 149-155. Crowe, J. H., and K. A. C. Madin. 1975. Anhydrobiosis in nematodes: Evaporative water loss and survival. J. Exp. Zool. 193: 323-334. David, I. S., E. L. Edwin., W. B. Robert, and R. M. Michael. 2001. Formulation of entomopathogenic nematode-infected cadavers. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 78: 13-23. Dryden, M. W. 1989a. Host association, on-host longevity and egg production of Ctenocephalides felis felis. Vet. Parasitol. 34: 117-122. Dryden, M. W. 1989b. Biology of the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis. Companion Anim. Pract. 19: 23-27. Dryden, M. W., and A. B. Broce. 1993. Development of a trap for collecting newly emerged Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) in homes. J. Med. Entomol. 30: 901-906. Dryden, M. W., and M. K. Rust. 1994. The cat flea: biology, ecology, and control. Vet. Parasitol. 52: 1-19. Dryden, M. W., and V. Smith. 1994. Cat flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) cocoon formation and development of naked flea pupae. J. Med. Entomol. 31: 272-277. Dryden, M. W., B. A. Broce, and W. E. Moore. 1993. Severe flea infestation on dairy calves. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 203: 1448-1452. Dryden, M. W., T. M. Denenberg, and S. Bunch. 2000. Control of fleas on naturally infested dogs and cats and in private residences with topical spot applications of fipronil or imidacloprid. Vet. Parasitol. 93: 69-75. Dryden, M. W., G. R. Long, and S. M. Gaafar. 1989a. Effects of ultrasonic flea collars on Ctenocephalides felis on cats. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 195: 1717-1718. Dryden, M. W., J. J. Neal, and G. W. Bennett. 1989b. Concepts of flea control. Companion Anim. Pract. 19: 11-20. Dryden, M. W., H. R. Perez, and D. M. Ulitchny. 1999. Control of fleas on pets and in homes by use of imidacloprid or lufenuron and a pyrethrin spray. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 215:36-39. Dunphy, G. B., and G. S. Thurston. 1990. Insect immunity. pp. 301-323. In: R. Gaugler, and H. K. Kaya, eds. Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Biological Control. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. Elbel, R. E. 1951. Comparative studies on the larva of certain species of flea (Siphonaptera). J. Parasitol. 2: 119-128. Epsky, N. D., D. E. Walter, and J. L. Capinera. 1988. Potential role of nematophagous microarthropods as biotic mortality factors of entomogenous nematodes (Rhabditida, Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 81: 821-825. Evans, A. A. F., and R. N. Perry. 1976. Survival strategies in nematodes. pp. 383-401. In: N. A. Croll, ed. The Organization of Nematodes. Academic Press, London. Fagbemi, B. O. 1982. Effect of Ctenocephalides felis strongylus infestation on the performance of West African dwarf sheep and goats. Vet. Q. 4: 92-95. Fajimi, A. K., I. O. Ayodeji, A. A. Taiwo, and F. T. Ajayi. 2006. Evaluation of the lure and kill potential of sand paper leaves (Ficus exasperate) against fleas of indigenous fowls. J. World Appl. Sci. 1: 76-79. Fielden, L., B. Krasnov, K. M. Still, and I. Khokhlova. 2002. Water balance in two species of desert fleas, Xenopsylla conformis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 39: 875-881. Finnegan, M. M., J. D. Downes, M. O’Regan, and C. T. Griffin. 1999. Effect of salt and temperature stresses on the survival and infectivity of Heterorhabditis spp. infective juveniles. J. Nematol. 1: 69-78. Forrester, D. J., J. A. Conti, and R. C. Belden. 1985. Parasites of the Florida panther (Felis concolor coryi). Proc. Helminthol. Soc. Wash. 52: 95-97. Forst, S., B. Dowds, N. E. Bormare, and E. Stackebrandt. 1997. Xenorhabdus spp. and Photorhabdus spp.: bugs that kills bugs. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 51: 47-72. Fox, I., and I. G. Bayona. 1968. Alphitobius laevigatus, a predator on flea larvae. J. Econ. Entomol. 61: 877. Fox, I., and I. Garcia-Moll. 1961. Ants attacking fleas in Puerto Rico. J. Econ. Entomol. 54: 1065-1066. Fujiie, A., and T. Yokoyama. 1998. Effects of ultraviolet light on the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema kushidai and its symbiotic bacterium, Xenorhabdus japonicus. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 33: 263-269. Garg, R. C., and W. A. Donahue. 1989. Pharmacologic profile of methoprene, an insect growth regulator, in cattle, dogs, and cats. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 194: 410-412. Gaugler, R., L. M. LeBack, B. Nakagaki, and G. M. Boush. 1980. Orientation of the entomogenous nematode Neoaplectana carpocapsae to carbon dioxide. Environ. Entomol. 9: 649-652. Georgis, R., and S. A. Manweiler. 1994. Entomopathogenic nematodes: A developing biological control technology. Agric. Zool. Rev. 63-94. Glazer, I. 1997. Effects of infected insects on secondary invasion of steinernematid entomopathogenic nematodes. Parasitology 114: 597-604. Glazer, I., L. Salame, and D. Segal. 1997. Genetic enhancement of nematicidal resistance of entomopathogenic nematodes. Biocontr. Sci. Technol. 7: 499-512. Grewal, P. S., A. M. Koppenhofer, and H. Y. Choo. 2005. Lawn, turfgrass and pasture applications. pp. 115-146. In: P. S. Grewal, R. –U. Ehlers, and D. I. Shapiro-Ilan, eds. Nematodes as Biocontrol Agents. CABI Press, London. Grewal, P. S., E. E. Lewis, and R. Gaugler. 1996. Response of infective stage parasites (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) to volatile cues from infected hosts. J. Chem. Ecol. 23: 503-515. Grewal, P. S., S. Selvan, and R. Gaugler. 1994a. Thermal adaptation nematodes: niche breadth for infection, establishment, and reproduction. J. Therm. Biol. 19: 245-253. Grewal, P. S., E. E. Lewis, J. F. Campbell, and R.Gaugler. 1994b. Searching behavior as a predictor of foraging strategy for entomopathogenic nematodes. J. Parasitol. 108: 207-215. Grewal, P. S., S. Selvan, E. E. Lewis, and R. Gaugler. 1993. Males as the colonizing sex in insect parasitic nematodes. Experientia 49: 605-608. Grewal, P. S., K. T. Power, S. K. Grewal, A. Suggars, and S. Haupricht. 2004. Enhanced consistency in biological control of white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) with new strains of entomopathogenic nematodes. Biol. Contr. 30: 73-82. Harman, D. A., R. E, Halliwell, and C. E. Freiner. 1987. Flea species from dogs and cats in North-Central Florida. Vet. Parasitol. 23: 135-140. Harvey, J. W., T. W. French, and D. J. Meyer. 1982. Chronic iron deficiency anemia in dogs. J. Am. Anim. Hosp. Assoc. 18: 946-960. Hazir, S., S. P. Stock, and N. Keskin. 2003a. A new entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema anatoliense n. sp. (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) from Turkey. Syst. Parasitol. 55: 211-220. Hazir, S., H. K. Kaya, S. P. Stock, and N. Keskin. 2003b. Entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) for biological control of soil pests. Turk. J. Biol. 181-202. Henderson, G., S. A. Manweiler, W. J. Lawrence, R. J. Tempelman, and L. D. Foil. 1995. The effects of Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) application to different life stages on adult emergence of the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis (Bouche). Vet. Dermatol. 6: 159-163. Higgins, J. A., S. Radulovic, D. C. Jaworski, and A. F. Azad. 1996. Acqusition of the cat scratch disease agent Bartonella henselae by cat flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 33: 490-495. Hinkle, N. C., P. G. Koehler, and R. S. Patterson. 1998. Host grooming efficiency for regulation of cat flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) populations. J. Med. Entomol. 35: 266-269. Hominick, W. R. 2002. Biogeography. pp. 115-143. In: R. Gaugler, ed. Entomopathogenic Nematology. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. Hominick, W. M., A. P. Reid, D. A. Bohan, and B. R. Briscoe. 1996. Entomopathogenic nematodes: biodiversity, geographical distribution and the convention on biological diversity. Biocontr. Sci. Technol. 6: 317-331. Hunter, K. W., A. R. Campbell, and P. C. Sayles. 1979. Human infestation by cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), from suburban raccoons. J. Med. Entomol. 16: 547. Jacobs, D. E., M. J. Hutchinson, W. G. Ryan. 2001. Control of flea populations in a simulated home environment model using lufenuron, imidacloprid or fipronil. Med. Vet. Entomol. 25: 73-77. Joseph, S. A. 1981. Studies on the bionomics of Ctenocephalides felis orientis (Jordan) 1925. Cheiron 10: 275-280. Jouvenaz, D. P., and C. S. Lofgren. 1990. Steinernamatid nematode drenches for control of fire ants, Solenopsis invicata in Florida. Florida Entomol. 73: 190-193. Kalkofen, U. P., and J. Greenburg. 1974. Public health implications of Pulex irritans infestations in dogs. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 165: 903-905. Kaya, H. K. 1985. Susceptibility of early larval stages of Pseudaletia unipuncta and Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to the entomogenous nematode Steinernema feltiae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae). J. Invertebr. Pathol. 46: 58-62. Kaya, H. K. 2002. Natural enemies and other antagonists. pp. 189-203. In: R. Gaugler, ed. Entomopathogenic Nematology. CABI Press, London. Kern Jr., W. H., P. G. Koehler, and R. S. Patterson. 1992. Diel patterns of cat flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) egg and fecal deposition. J. Med. Entomol. 29: 203-206. Kinoshita, M., and S. Yamanaka. 1998. Development and prevalence of entomopathogenic nematodes in Japan Jap. J. Nematol. 28: 42-45. Klein, M. G. 1990. Efficacy against soil-inhabiting insect pests. pp. 195-214. In: R. Gaugler, and H. K. Kaya, eds. Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Biological Control. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. Knulle, W. 1967. Physiological properties and biological implications of the water vapour sorption mechanism in the larvae of the oriental rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis (Roths). J. Insect Physiol. 13: 333-357. Koehler, P. G., R. S. Patterson, and J. C. Webb. 1986. Efficacy of ultrasound for German cockroach (Orthoptera: Blattellidae) control. J. Econ. Entomol. 79: 1027-1031. Koehler, P. G., R. S. Patterson, and W. R. Martin. 1992. Susceptibility of cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae, Blattidae) to infection by Steinernema carpocapsae. J. Econ. Entomol. 85: 1184-1187. Kondo, E., and N. Ishibashi. 1989. Non-oral infection of Steinernema feltiae (DD-136) to the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Nocuidae) larvae. Appl. Enotmol. Zool. 24: 85-95. Koppenhofer, A. M., and E. M. Fuzy. 2003a. Ecological characterization of Steinernema scarabaei, a scarab-adapted entomopathogenic nematode from New Jersey. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 83: 139-148. Koppenhofer, A. M., and E. M. Fuzy. 2003b. Steinernema scarabaei for the control of white grubs. Biol. Contr. 28: 47-59. Kung, S. P., R. Gaugler, and H. K. Kaya. 1990. Influence of soil pH and oxygen on entomopathogenic nematode persistence. J. Nematol. 22: 440-445. Kung, S. P., R. Gaugler, and H. K. Kaya. 1991. Effects of temperature, moisture and relative humidity on entomopathogenic nematode persistence. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 57: 242-249. Laakso, J., and H. Setala. 1999. Population- and ecosystem-level effects of predation on microbial-feeding nematodes. Oecologia 120: 279-286. Lewis, R. E. 1972. Notes on the geographic distribution and host preferences in the order Siphonaptera. Part 1. Pulicidae. J. Med. Entomol. 9: 511-520. Lewis, E. E. 2002. Behavioural ecology. pp. 205-223. In: R. Gaugler, ed. Entomopathogenic Nematology. CABI Press, London. Liao, C. Y., L. C. Tang, C. F. Pai, W. F. Hsiao, B. R. Briscoe, and R. F. Hou. 2001. A new isolate of the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema abbasi (Nematoda: Steinernematidae), from Taiwan. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 77: 78-80. MacDonald, J. M. 1995. Flea control: an overview of treatment concepts for North America. Vet. Dermatol. 6: 121-131. Marchiondo, A. A., J. L. Riner, K. F. Sonenshine, and K. F. Rowe. 1990. Ovicidal and larvicidal modes of action of fenoxycarb against the cat flea. J. Med. Entomol. 29: 913-921. Meola, R. W., S. R. Dean, S. M. Meola, H. Sittertz-Bhatkar, and R. Schenker. 1999. Effect of lufenuron on chorionic and cuticular structure of unhatched larval Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 36: 92-100. Morris, O. N. 1987. Evaluation of the nematode, Steinernema feltiae Filipjew, for the control of the crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Can. Entomol. 119: 95-101. Muaoka, M., and N. Ishibashi. 1976. Nematode feeding mites and their feeding behavior. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 11: 1-7. Nguyen, K. B., and G. C. Smart Jr. 1990. Steinernema scapterisci n. sp. (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae). J. Nematol. 22: 187-199. Nguyen, K. B., and G. C. Smart Jr. 1991. Pathogenicity of Steinernema scapterisci to selected in vertebrates. J. Nematol. 23: 7-11. Nguyen, K. B., and G. C. Smart. 1994. Neosteinernema logicurvicauda n. gen., n. sp. (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), a parasite of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Koller). J. Nematol. 26: 162-174. Osbrink, W. L. A., M. K. Rust, and D. A. Reierson. 1985. Distribution and control of cat fleas in homes in southern California (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 79: 136-140. Patel, M. N., and D. J. Wright. 1998. The ultrastructure of the cuticle and sheath of the cuticle and sheath of infective juveniles of entomopathogenic nematodes. J. Helminthol. 72: 257-266. Pickens, L. G., J. F. Carroll, and A. F. Azad. 1987. Electrophysiological studies of the spectral sensitivity of cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis and oriental rat fleas, Xenopyslla cheopis to monochromatic light. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 45: 193-204. Poinar, G. O. Jr. 1990. Taxonomy and biology of Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae. pp. 23-61. In: R. Gaugler, and H. K. Kaya, eds. Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Biological Control. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. Pullen, S. R., and R. W. Meola. 1995. Survival and reproduction of the cat flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) fed human blood on an artificial membrane system. J. Med. Entomol. 32: 467-470. Read, D. S., S. K. Sheppard, M. W. Bruford, D. M. Glen, and W. O. C. Symondson. 2006. Molecular detection of predation by soil micro-arthropods on nematodes. Mol. Ecol. 15: 1963-1972. Riddle, D. L. 1988. The dauer larva. In: W. B. Wood, ed. The Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor. pp. 393-412. Roe, D. J., and G. D. Sales. 1992. Welfare implications of ultrasonic flea collars. Vet. Rec. 130: 142-143. Rovesti, L., and K. V. Deseo. 1990. Compatibility of chemical pesticides with the entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser and Steinernema feltiae (Nematoda, Steinernematidae). Nematologica 36: 237-245. Rovesti, L., and K. V. Deseo. 1991. Compatibility of pesticides with the entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis heliothidis. Nematologica 37: 113-116. Rovesti, L., F. Tagliente, K. V. Deseo, and E. W. Heinzpeter. 1989. Compatibility of pesticides with the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae). Nematologica 34: 462-476. Rust, M. K. 1992. Influence of photoperiod on egg production of cat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) infesting cats. J. Med. Entomol. 29: 301-305. Rust, M. K. 2005. Advances in the control of Ctenocephalides felis (cat flea) on cats and dogs. Trends Parasitol. 21: 232-236. Rust, M. K., and M. W. Dryden. 1997. The biology, ecology, and management of the cat flea. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 42: 451-475. Rust, M. K., and R. W. Parker. 1988. Lack of behavioral responses of the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) to a broad spectrum of ultrasound. J. Med. Entomol. 25: 144-146. SAS Institute. 2002. SAS user’s guide: version 8.2 ed. SAS Institute, Cary, NC. Selvan, S., P. S. Grewal, T. Leustek, and R. Gaugler. 1996. Heat shock enhances thermotolerance of infective juvenile insect-parasitic nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae). Experientia 52: 727-730. Silverman, J., and M. K. Rust. 1983. Some abiotic factors affecting the survival of the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Environ. Entomol. 12: 490-495. Silverman, J., and M. K. Rust. 1985. Extended longevity of the pre-emerged adult cat flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) and factors stimulation emergence from the pupal cocoon. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 78: 763-768. Silverman, J., E. G. Platzer, and M. K. Rust. 1982. Infection of the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouche) by Neoplectana carpocapsae (Weiser). J. Nematol. 14: 394-397. Silverman, J., M. K. Rust, and D. A. Reierson. 1981. Influence of temperature and humidity on the survival and development of the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 18: 78-83. Smith, K. A., R. W. Miller, and D. H. Simser. 1992. Entomopathogenic nematode bibliography: Heterorhabditid and Steinernematid nematodes. In: A Publication of the Nematode Subcommittee of the Southen Project S-240 Development of Entomopathogens as Control Agents for Insect Pests. University of Arkansas. N. G. Wyatt, ed. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin. 370 pp. Stock, S. P., and A. M. Koppenhofer. 2003. Steinernema scarabaei n. sp. (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), a natural pathogen of scarab beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from New Jersey, USA. Nematology 5: 191-204. Thiemann, T., L. J. Fielden, and M. I. Kelrick. 2003. Water uptake in cat flea Ctenocephalides felis (Pulicidae: Siphonaptera). J. Insect Physiol. 49: 1085-1092. Thurston, G. S., Y. Ni, and H. K. Kaya. 1994. Influence of salinity on survival and infectivity of entomopathogenic nematodes. J. Nematol. 26: 345-451. Timper, P., and H. K. Kaya. 1989. Role of the 2nd-stage cuticle of entomogenous nematode in preventing infection by nematophagous fungi. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 54: 314-321. Wade, S. E., and J. R. Georgi. 1988. Survival and reproduction of artificially fed cat fleas Ctenocephalides felis (Bouche) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 25: 186-190. Wang, Y., R. Gaugler, and L. Cui. 1994. Variations in immune response of Popillia japonica and Acheta domestricus to Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema species. J. Nematol. 26: 11-18. Watschke, T. L., P. H. Dernoeden, and D. J. Shetlar. 1995. pp. 171-343. Managing Turfgrass Pests. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Fla. Wharton, D. A., and I. M. Brown. 1991. Cold-tolerance mechanisms the Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi. J. Exp. Biol. 155: 626-641. Wharton, D. A., and M. R. Surry. 1994. Cold tolerance mechanisms of the infective larvae of the insect parasitic nematode Heterorhabditis Zealandica Poinar. Cryo Letters 15: 353-360. Wharton, D. A., S. R. Young, and J. Barrett. 1984. Cold tolerance in nematode. J. Comp. Physiol. B. Biochem. Syst. Environ. Physiol. 154: 73-77. White, G. F. 1927. A method for obtaining infective nematode larvae from cultures. Science 66: 302-303. Wilson M., and R. Gaugler. 2004. Factors limiting short-term persistence of entomopathogenic nematodes. J. Appl. Entomol. 128: 250-253. Womersley, C. Z. 1990. Dehydration survival and anhydrobiotic potential. pp. 117-137. In: R. Gaugler, and H. K. Kaya, eds. Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Biological Control. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. Wright, D. J., and R. N. Perry. 2002. Physiology and biochemistry. pp. 145-168. In: R. Gaugler, ed. Entomopathogenic Nematology. CABI Press, London. Yeruham, I., S. Rosen, and A. Hadani. 1989. Mortality in calves, lambs and kids caused by severe infestation with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouche, 1835) in Israel. Vet. Parasitol. 30: 351-356.
摘要: 廣佈於全世界的貓蚤(Ctenocephalides felis (Bouche))係寄生於貓狗體上之重要寄生性害蟲;許多醫學上及獸醫學上之重要疾病皆可由貓蚤傳播。雖貓蚤並非草坪植物上的害蟲,但卻可於其基部以有機物質為食而發育為成蚤;因此,本試驗在實驗室內及草坪草(Axonopus affinis Chase)上,以兩種蟲生線蟲,Steinernema abbasi 及S. carpocapsae,進行其對貓蚤幼蟲期之侵染力比較研究。隨著寄主幼蟲齡期增加,兩種線蟲對其所需之LT50則隨之縮短;隨著濃度的提高,兩種線蟲對第3齡貓蚤幼蟲所需之LT50亦隨之縮短。貓蚤之土繭蛹,對S. abbasi較S. carpocapsae更具感受性;在壤土中,兩種線蟲對第3齡貓蚤幼蟲之死亡率,會隨著含水量的增加而增加,但當砂土含水量為20%時,其對第3齡貓蚤幼蟲之死亡率則隨之下降。兩種線蟲皆可於草坪草上感染第3齡貓蚤幼蟲並導致死亡,其死亡率皆可達76.7%以上。
The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouche), is the most important ectoparasite of domestic cats and dogs worldwide. In addition, it can transmit severe human and animal diseases. Although the cat flea is not a pest of turfgrass in the outdoor environment, its larvae feed on dead organic matters and develop to adults in the grass. Therefore, we intended to use entomopathogenic nematodes for biological control of this nuisance pest. In this study, we compared infectivity of two entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema abbasi and S. carpocapsae, against immature stage of C. felis (Bouche) in both laboratory and turfgrass (Axonopus affinis Chase). In general, the values of LT50 declined with increasing larval instars of host insect in two nematode species. The LT50 values against 3rd-instar of the cat flea were increased when the nematode concentrations decreased. The cocoon-typed pupae of the flea in soil were more susceptable to S. abbasi than S. carpocapsae. The mortality of 3rd-instar larvae increased with an increase in the water content of soil, but declined under 20% in that of sand. The 3rd-instar larvae of cat flea could be infected with infective juveniles (IJs) of S. abbasi and S. carpocapsae in turfgrass, resulting in at least 76.7% mortality infected with both nematodes.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/30700
其他識別: U0005-1508200722162400


在 DSpace 系統中的文件,除了特別指名其著作權條款之外,均受到著作權保護,並且保留所有的權利。