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標題: 台灣沙灘蟋蟀(直翅目:地蟋蟀科)基礎生物學研究
Biological research on beach cricket, Taiwanemobius formosanus Yang et Chang (Orthoptera: Nemobiidae)
作者: Huang, Chih-Chieh
出版社: 昆蟲學系所
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摘要: Taiwan beach cricket(Taiwanemobius formosanus Yang et Chang, 1996) was described by Jeng-Tze Yang and Yu-Lin Chang in 1996. The preliminary research indicates that Taiwan beach cricket lives in pebble sandy beach in the eastern coast of Taiwan, including off-shore Lanyu Island. But in the past ten years, no one study again on their basic biology. The whole study began at acquired the references of the biology of beach crickets, such as food habit, life history, distribution, circadian, reproductive behavior and so on. Then the study moved into field investigation and laboratory experiment. Investigating on the information of spatial distribution, habitat, circadian by pit-fall and free-hand collecting. Breeding crickets and recording by video of crickets behavior in laboratory make up the deficiency of biology data from references and field investigation. Crickets were reared in growth chamber (D /L: 12 /12, 25℃, RH 80%). We recorded the behavior of both circadian activity and reproductive behavior by video to analyse the on fixed action pattern. The egg stage was 35.69 ±1.99 days, and the longevity of male and female was 126.00 ±7.22, 127.70 ±8.30 days, respectively. Totally instars of most beach cricket was 8 instars (82.98%), fewer was 9 (17.02%). The first instar was 15.57 ±2.26 days, then reduced in 2~4 instar. Finally it increased accompany by instars. According to the result, we confirmed that T. formosanus lived in pebbled sandy band intensively (4 April: ANOVA, F=2.63, p=0.1049; 21 November: ANOVA, F=4.09, p=0.0382; 20 December: ANOVA, F=4.77, p=0.0250). For the circadian, the active time in the third period was longer than two light periods. The cricket was more active in the dark than in the light period. Male reversed its position and made a distinctive behavior, like vibrating or jerking, and moved with his posterior end directed toward the female's head during courtship. Because of wingless, we presume that it is the same behavior for producing courtship song in the member of Nemobiidae. Because of the similar morphology, the other species T. ryukyuensis distributes over Ryukyu Island is considered that they are the same species. We hypothesize that the egg of beach cricket may disperse by Kuroshio Current from Taiwan east coast to Ryukyu. Results showed that T. formosanus has higher specificity in pebble sandy beach where are easily affected by human activity. We suggest that setting up a natural preservation zone in pebble sandy beach is necessary for protecting this treasuring species.
台灣沙灘蟋蟀(Taiwanemobius formosanus Yang et Chang, 1996)屬地蟋蟀科,本科台灣目前紀錄11種,本種由楊正澤博士與張玉鈴於1996年發表為單模屬。初步研究結果顯示本種分布於台灣東海岸及離島蘭嶼之礫石灘,但過去十年內其基礎生物學之研究資料缺乏。台灣地蟋蟀均分布於陸域,而太平洋岸有10種地蟋蟀分布於海岸各種不同棲地包括紅樹林、珊瑚礁岸、礫石灘等。本研究開始整理回顧海灘蟋蟀類之文獻,希望藉由文獻蒐集進一步了解棲息在海岸的蟋蟀其食性、生活史、分布、日週活動、生殖行為。野外調查則利用徒手採集、掉落式陷阱等方法來了解沙灘蟋蟀在大小尺度之空間分布、棲地類型、日週活動;室內則藉由飼養與行為錄影的方式來補充生活史、日週活動及生殖行為資料之不足。 台灣沙灘蟋蟀在生長箱以相對溼度80%、光照(D /L) 12 /12 hr、恆溫25℃飼養,卵期為35.7 ±2.0天,若蟲共8個齡期(82.98%),少數為9齡(17.02%),總發育天數雄蟲為126.0 ±7.2天,雌蟲為127.7 ±8.3天;各齡期發育天數,一齡15.6 ±2.3天,二至四齡較低,五至八齡則隨齡期而增加。族群結構及分布方面,藉由環島採集之結果,確定沙灘蟋蟀僅分布於台灣本島東部、離島蘭嶼;在海灘中小尺度分布則集中於礫石帶之中(4月4日:ANOVA, F=2.63, p=0.1049,11月21日:ANOVA, F=4.09, p=0.0382,12月20日:ANOVA, F=4.77, p=0.0250),顯示沙灘蟋蟀對於礫石灘棲地具高度專一性;日週活動方面,陷阱調查結果在各時段間不具顯著性差異,而室內錄影實驗中無光照時段(19:00)T. formosanus成蟲移動較為頻繁,且移動時間亦較有光照時間來得長,顯示在無光照時可能為蟋蟀的活動、覓食時間。生殖行為上,分析固定行為模式發現,雄性蟋蟀有出現轉身背對雌蟲、並做出類似震動或抽搐動作。 琉球群島有一種沙灘蟋蟀(T. ryukyuensis),與T. formosanus的外部形態及棲地極相似,因此推測沙灘蟋蟀的卵可能藉由黑潮漂流,散佈至琉球。本研究結果顯示,台灣沙灘蟋蟀只分布於東部礫石灘,且活動及生殖均侷限在同一棲地完成,棲地專一性相當高,然而海岸因人為活動頻繁,棲地容易遭受衝擊,建議未來可以劃設保護區來保護海岸礫石灘環境,如此才能藉由保留完整的海岸生態系特殊地形景觀,同時保留此一珍貴稀有的獨特物種。
其他識別: U0005-1306200918453700
Appears in Collections:昆蟲學系



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