Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/30738
標題: Systematic study of Bostrichidae (Coleoptera) in family category
長蠹科(鞘翅目)科級系統分類研究
作者: 劉藍玉
Lan-Yu, Liu
關鍵字: http://etds.lib.nchu.edu.tw/etdservice/view_metadata?etdun=U0005-1505200918065600
鞘翅目
長蠹科
系統分類
親緣關係
出版社: 昆蟲學系所
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摘要: 依據最新出版的世界長蠹科名錄(Borowski and Węgrzynowicz, 2007),長蠹科昆蟲由574個種組成,並進一步細分為9個亞科、11個族、92個屬。本研究以屬為操作單位,依型態特徵對長蠹科的親緣關係進行研究。從長蠹科的各亞科和各族中共選出31個屬,並自長蠹總科(Bostrichoidea)下的竊蠹科(Anobiidae)及鰹節蟲科(Dermestidae)中各選出兩個屬做為外群。每個屬都以模式種做為代表進行研究,同時在挑選出來的31個屬中,共有7個屬具有明顯的性別二態性,故將此七屬的公母個體分開研究。 本研究採用29個測量值特徵 (measurement characters)、51個大型(傳統)特徵 (marco- characters),以及43個微結構特徵 (micro-structures characters),總共123個特徵的資料都併入資料矩陣分析長蠹科昆蟲的親緣關係。為了避免「大型標本數值恆大、小型標本數值恆小」的體型效應,所有測量值特徵都以比值為準,而不直接採用測量值。本研究所採用的「大型特徵」主要為前人描述長蠹科昆蟲時採用過的特徵,此外本文作者走訪歐洲各重要鞘翅目收藏,對長蠹科昆蟲進行廣泛而全面的觀察後,也對「大型特徵」做了進一步地增補。在本研究中,「大型特徵」之名主要來自與「微結構特徵」相對的概念,前者為採用解剖顯微鏡觀察描述的特徵,後者則為採用掃描式電子顯微鏡(SEM)觀察未鍍金標本取得的特徵,本研究也是初次採用「微構造特徵」探討長蠹親緣關係。 各特徵的狀態與編碼方式,依「測量值特徵」、「大型特徵」及「微結構特徵」三類,於「結果」中詳加說明。各特徵在整個親緣分析中的重要性與效能參見附錄C,各類特徵的效能與特性討論參見討論第。本研究採用PAUP(version 4 beta)進行親緣分析,所得結果與前人的分類系統比較後提出修訂,共有四個亞科被提升到科的層級,包括Endecatomidae LeConte 1861, Euderiidae Lesne 1934, Lyctidae Billberg 1820及Psoidae Blanchard 1851。其中Endecatominae 和 Euderiidae 都是僅有單屬之科,Lyctidae 下再細分為四個亞科, Lyctinae Billberg 1820, Trogoxylinae Lesne 1921 sensu novo, Cephalotominae subfamilia nova 及 Dysidinae Lesne 1921 combinatio nova。Psoidae下再細分為兩個亞科,Psoinae Blanchard 1851 and Polycaoninae Lesne 1896。Bostrichidae sensu novo 下亦細分為兩個亞科,Bostrichinae Latreille 1802及Dinoderinae C. G. Thomson 1863,其中 Bostrichinae再細分為四個族,Bostrichini Latreille 1802, Apatini Jacquelin du Val 1861 sensu novo, Sinoxylini Lesne 1899 sensu novo 及 Xyloperthini Lesne 1921。本論文研究結果提供新的分類系統、檢索表,以及各科、各亞科及各族的描述,新特徵效能評估及分類群變動亦有進一步討論。
The phylogeny of the beetle (Insecta: Coleoptera) family Bostrichidae auct. has been examined at genus level based on a morphological study. Thirty-one genera representing all the subfamilies and tribes included by Borowski and Węgrzynowicz (2007) in their recent catalogue of the family were selected for study, as well as four outgroup taxa, two genera of Anobiidae and two genera of Dermestidae. The type species of each genus was studied, and in seven genera showing pronounced sexual dimorphism, both male and female of the type species were studied separately. I this study, I used 29 measurement characters, 51 macro- (traditional) characters, and 43 micro-structure characters, thus 123 characters have been included in the datamatrix for analyzing the phylogeny of Bostrichidae. The 29 measurement characters were obtained from 29 measurements made on each specimen under a binocular microscope fitted with a micrometer scale. In order to avoid size effects, ratios of measurements have been used in the analysis, and not the original measurements. The macro- characters are those used in previous descriptions of Bostrichidae, but are supplemented by the author's own observations on a wide variety of Bostrichidae in the important Coleoptera collections in Europe. All 51 macro-characters were examined by binocular microscope. The micro-structural characters were examined by scanning electronic microscope (SEM) of unsputtered specimens. This is the first time that micro-structures have been used in the study of the phylogeny of bostrichids. The details of the coding of each characters are listed in Materials and Methods. The performance of the different characters in the phylogenetic analysis is assessed. The details of the performance of each character are available in the appendix C and the discussion of the performance of characters refers to the Discussion and Conclusion. The results of phylogenetic analysis by PAUP (version 4 beta) suggest a distinctly different classification from those of previous workers on the family. The following taxa are separated at the family level from the Bostrichidae sensu stricto; Endecatomidae LeConte 1861, Euderiidae Lesne 1934, Lyctidae Billberg 1820 and Psoidae Blanchard 1851. The Endecatominae and Euderiidae are both monogeneric families. The Lyctidae is divided into four subfamilies: Lyctinae Billberg 1820, Trogoxylinae Lesne 1921 sensu novo, Cephalotominae subfamilia nova and Dysidinae Lesne 1921 combinatio nova. The Psoidae is divided into two subfamilies: Psoinae Blanchard 1851 and Polycaoninae Lesne 1896. The Bostrichidae is divided into two subfamilies: Dinoderinae C. G. Thomson 1863 and Bostrichinae Latreille 1802. The Bostrichinae is divided further into four tribes: Bostrichini Latreille 1802, Apatini Jacquelin du Val 1861 sensu novo, Sinoxylini Lesne 1899 sensu novo and Xyloperthini Lesne 1921. The diagnoses of the new taxa are presented in the chapter Result, together with a key to families, subfamilies and tribes. The performance of characters and the these changes to the current classification are discussed in the chapter Discussion. A list of apomorphic characters and state shifts inbetween nodes, and from node to the terminal taxon is available in the appendices.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/30738
其他識別: U0005-1505200918065600
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