Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/30773
標題: 以生命表理論為基礎之小十三星瓢蟲捕食潛能與大量飼育之族群統計分析以及Bootstrap與Jackknife方法之比較
Demographic Analyses of the Predatory Potential and Mass Rearing of Harmonia dimidiata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Based on Life Table Theory with Comparison of Bootstrap and Jackknife Methods
作者: 余志儒
Yu, Jih-Zu
關鍵字: 小十三星瓢蟲
Harmonia dimidiata (F.)
棉蚜
生命表
捕食率
終極捕食率
食物的合適性
Aphis gossypii Glover
Life table
predation rate
finite predation rate
suitability of food
出版社: 昆蟲學系所
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摘要: 小十三星瓢蟲 [Harmonia dimidiata (F.)] 是具有防治蚜蟲潛力的天敵。本論文應用年齡齡期兩性生命表 (age-stage, two-sex life table),探討其族群特性、捕食能力以及代用飼料的合適性,並討論jackknife與bootstrap兩種技術應用在估計族群介量平均值與變異性的適用性。首先研究小十三星瓢蟲的天然食餌之一的棉蚜 (Aphis gossypii Glover) 在不同定溫下取食甜瓜 (Cucumis melo L.) 的生命表。結果顯示發育速率隨溫度而變化,在15~30°C溫度範圍內的發育最適溫為30°C。內在增殖率 (r) 顯示棉蚜的族群增長適溫範圍在20~30°C之間。雖然棉蚜行孤雌生殖 (parthenogenesis),但仍應採用兩性生命表分析,以正確描述齡期的分化與重疊。小十三星瓢蟲取食棉蚜的淨增殖率 (R0) 在15、20與25°C下分別為147.4、98.7與62.5 粒卵,在30°C下無產卵。本瓢蟲的捕食率以在25&ordm;C時為最高,其雌、雄蟲一生分別可捕食20,081與21,408隻棉蚜。淨捕食率 (C0) 在15、20與25 &ordm;C分別為10,963、13,050與 7,492隻棉蚜,以在20 &ordm;C下最高。為能更適當地比較捕食潛能,本研究結合終極增長率 (finite rate, λ) 與穩定族群捕食率 (stable predation rate, ψ) 計算得15、20與25 &ordm;C下的終極捕食率(finite predation rate, ω)分別為95.2、183.3及177.0隻棉蚜。此結果顯示,小十三星瓢蟲應用於防治棉蚜時,20與25&ordm;C比在15&ordm;C適合。在估計族群介量的平均值與變異方面,用jackknife方法時,若捨棄的個體為雄性或成蟲前期即死亡者,會得到R0值為0的無意義結果,且估計之樣本值不符合常態分布,故不應再使用jackknife方法。而用bootstrap技術所估得R0與其他介量的平均值,符合常態分布,且不會高估變異性。本論文亦採用年齡齡期兩性生命表於室內25°C下,在幼蟲期或成蟲期分別供應東方果實蠅卵或棉蚜,評估東方果實蠅卵做為小十三星瓢蟲食物的合適性。實驗結果顯示,以幼蟲與成蟲皆取食棉蚜的內在增殖率、淨增殖率最高,分別為0.1124 d-1、260.7粒卵。雖然幼蟲與成蟲分別取食低壓冷凍乾燥與新鮮東方果實蠅卵的r與R0最低,分別為0.0615 d-1、38.6粒卵,但小十三星瓢蟲幼蟲仍可完成發育,成蟲亦有生殖力,考慮東方果實蠅卵可用人工飼料大量飼養,且可不必栽種植物與飼育蚜蟲,仍可視為小十三星瓢蟲合適的食物。
The ladybird beetle Harmonia dimidiata (F.) is a potential natural enemy for aphid control. Based on the age-stage, two-sex life table, the beetle’s population characteristics, predation capacity, and prey suitability were investigated. The application of both jackknife and bootstrap sampling techniques for the estimation of population parameters was also discussed. The life table of Aphis gossypii Glover at different temperatures was firstly studied. Results showed the temperature- dependent development rate of A. gossypii reared on Cucumis melo L. and 30°C was the optimal temperature for the range 15-30°C. However, there was no significant difference among 20, 25, and 30°C in the intrinsic (r) and finite (λ) rate of natural increase. Thus, the temperature range 20-30°C can be considered as optimal for population growth of A. gossypii. Although A. gossypii reproduce parthenogenetically, the age-stage, two-sex life table should be used to take the variable developmental rate among individuals into account and to describe the stage overlapping properly. Secondly, the life histories and predation rates of the ladybird beetle H. dimidiata were compared among beetles kept at 15, 20, and 25°C. The beetles were fed on A. gossypii and were maintained at 70 ± 10% RH and a 14:10 (L:D) h photoperiod. According to the age-stage, two-sex life table, the net reproduction rates (R0) were 147.4, 98.7, and 62.5 offspring for beetles kept at 15, 20, and 25°C, respectively. Additionally, we employed both the jackknife and bootstrap techniques for estimating the means, variances, and standard errors of the population parameters. The sample means of R0 and the other population parameters obtained using the bootstrap technique fit a normal distribution, but the jackknife technique generated biologically meaningless zero values for R0. The net predation rates were 10,963, 13,050, and 7,492 aphids for beetles kept at 15, 20, and 25&ordm;C, respectively. For a comprehensive comparison of predation potential, we incorporated both the finite rate (λ) and the stable predation rate (ψ) into the finite predation rate (ω). When both the growth rate and the predation rate were considered, our results showed that H. dimidiata is a more efficient biological control agent for A. gossypii at 20 and 25&ordm;C than at 15&ordm;C. Lastly, the suitability of the eggs of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) for rearing the ladybird beetle H. dimidiata was analysed based on the age-stage, two-sex life table and compared with those reared on the natural prey A. gossypii. Four combinations of rearing media prepared from B. dorsalis eggs and living A. gossypii for the larvae and adults of H. dimidiata were studied in the laboratory at 25°C, 70 ± 10% RH, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. The highest intrinsic rates of increase (r = 0.1124 d-1) and net reproductive rates (R0 = 260.7 offspring) were observed when both larval and adult stages of H. dimidiata were reared on A. gossypii. When both larvae and adults were reared on B. dorsalis eggs, the values of r and R0 were 0.0615 d-1 and 38.6 offspring, respectively. Despite the lower net reproductive rates, our results showed that B. dorsalis eggs can be considered as an adequate and less expensive alternative diet for rearing H. dimidiata. Our results demonstrated that the age-stage, two-sex life table offers meaningful analytical results and is an invaluable tool for the evaluation of diet.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/30773
其他識別: U0005-0901201315120500
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-0901201315120500
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