Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/30782
標題: 百合萎凋病菌的偵測、存活與防治
Detection, Survival and Control of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lilii, the casual agent of Fusarium wilt of lily
作者: 許嘉蘋
Shu, Chia-Ping
關鍵字: lily Fusarium wilt
百合萎凋病菌
selective medium
container medium
survival
nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum
biocontrol
選擇性培養基
存活
無病原性尖鎌胞菌
栽培介質
生物防治
出版社: 植物病理學系
摘要: 中文摘要 百合萎凋病菌的偵測、存活及防治 許嘉蘋 國立中興大學植物病理學系 百合為多年生球根花卉,種球的繁殖主要由鱗片無性繁殖成鱗片球,隨後栽種於土中培育成公斤球及開花球,在土中栽種百合的時間長達6個月以上,因此種球極易遭受土媒病原菌的為害,其中由Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lilii引起的百合萎凋病尤為常見,它可造成百合植株下位葉黃化、矮化、落葉、落蕾、提早老化和種球壞疽、腐爛等病徵,致使百合切花品質與產量下降。一般言之,研究鐮胞菌的病害時,常採用Nash PCNB培養基自土壤或栽培介質中分離Fusarium spp.,惟在Nash PCNB培養基不易由外觀區別不同F. oxysporum分化種,因此本試驗嘗試研發F. oxysporum f.sp. lilii的選擇性培養基,藉以偵測百合種球與土壤中百合萎凋病菌的存活。將8種基礎培養基搭配多組微生物抑制劑與酸鹼值條件後,進行比較試驗發現Komada培養基加入50ppm免賴得,並以10%(w/w)磷酸調整酸鹼值為pH4.0,所製成之FLI培養基,可有效自百合種球與土壤中偵測出百合萎凋病菌。FLI培養基可抑制F. oxysporum f.sp. lactucum(萵苣萎凋病菌)、F. oxysporum f.sp. niveum(西瓜蔓割病菌)、F. oxysporum f.sp. momordicae(苦瓜萎凋病菌)、F. oxysporum f.sp. raphani(蘿蔔黃葉病)、F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense(香蕉黃葉病)、F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici(番茄萎凋病)等F. oxysporum之分化種。此外亦可抑制F. avenaceum、F. camptoceras、F. concolor、F. dimerum、F. graminearum、F. subglutinans、F. semitectum、F. graminum、F. reticulatum、F. proliferatum、F. moniliforme、F. merismoides、F. lateritium及F. heterosporum等;並可由菌落形態與顏色將F. oxysporum f.sp. lilii與F. poae、F. solani、F. ventricosum區分開。進一步,利用FLI培養基自百合栽培田土與病株分離所得之F. oxysporum菌株接種於百合鱗片球後,證明可在FLI培養基生長之F. oxysporum菌株對百合植株均具有病原性。運用FLI培養基偵測百合萎凋病菌在土壤與介質的存活與消長時,發現百合萎凋病菌加入土中30天後,存活菌量迅速由1 ×105cfu/g soil降至1 ×104cfu/g soil左右,隨後110天,菌體數約維持在1 -5 ×103cfu/g soil上下。百合萎凋病菌在大里土中的存活最佳,其次是在溪湖土中。研究發現隨著土壤中病原菌菌量的增加,病害發展亦較為嚴重且快速。在4種土攘中接種無病原性F. oxysporum F403菌株及在埔里土、大里與溪湖土中添加蝦蟹殼粉時,皆可在30天內造成土中百合萎凋病菌存活率下降。此外,在埔里、溪湖、新社與大里四種土攘中添加0.5(w/v)米糠、蓖麻粕及蝦蟹殼粉後10-30天,可以提高無病原性F. oxysporum F403菌株的存活率。將百合鱗片球(cv. Casa Blanca)種植在8種介質中6個月後,皆可以培育出平均周徑大於7.5公分的公斤球。在以台糖濾泥調配的介質中,以LH2介質培育的百合公斤球發生腐爛情形最少,而以在PH01與PH01F培育的公斤球周徑最大。在接種百合萎凋病菌後,發現PH01介質可以抑制百合萎凋病的發生。將處理過無病原性F. oxysporum F403菌株的鱗片球種植在溫室及溪湖、埔里田間,均能有效降低種球腐爛率及增加種球周徑,尤其在溪湖田間試驗中發現F403具有延遲或減緩百合萎凋病發生的效果,至於百合種球接種其他拮抗微生物則隨栽培區域與栽培品種不同會出現效果不一致的現象。 關鍵詞:百合萎凋病菌、選擇性培養基、栽培介質、存活、無病原性尖鎌胞菌、生物防治。
Abstract Detection, Survival and Control of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lilii, the causal agent of Fusarium wilt of lily Shu, Chia-Ping Department of Plant Pathology National Chung Hsing University 1.The objectives of the study were to: (a)develop a selective medium for detection of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lilii from diseased lily plant and infested soils, (b)investigate the effect of organic amendments and antagonists on survival of the pathogen and non-pathogenic F. oxysporum F403 in the soils, (c) develop the container media for cultivating healthy year bulblets of lily, (d)determine the effect of beneficial antagonists on biocontrol of Fusarium wilt of lily in the field tests. 2.The FLI selective medium was successfully developed for detection of F. oxysporum f.sp. lilii from infested soil and diseased lily plants. The FLI selective medium (pH4) consisted of 1.0g K2HPO4, 0.5g KCl, 0.5g MgSO4, 0.01g Fe-Na-EDTA, 2.0g L-asparagine, 20.0g Galactose, 1.0g pentachloronitrobenzene, 0.5g oxgall, 1.0g Na2B4O7.10H2O, 0.3g streptomycin sulfate, 0.1g benomyl(50%), 15.0g agar and 1.0L distilled water was more sensitive than Nash-PCNB medium for distinguishing the pathogen from the other Fusarium species. In the study, it was proved that F. oxysporum f.sp. lactucum, F. oxysporum f.sp. niveum, F. oxysporum f.sp. momordicae, F. oxysporum f.sp. raphani, F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense and F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici were not able to grow on the FLI medium plate. Among 29 species of Fusarium tested, F. poae, F. solani and F. ventricosum showed well growth on the FLI medium. However, their colony morphologies and color on the medium were completely different from ones of F. oxysporum f.sp. lilii. Once the isolates of F. oxysporum obtained from lily plant parts were able to grow onto the FLI medium, they were certainly to show the pathogenicity to lily plants. 3.Survival ability of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lilii was affected by soil sources and components of container media. The population density of the pathogen decreased more rapidly in Puli soil than that in Tali soil. The pathogen was not more favorite to survive in TSC filter cake medium compared to it in BVB No.4 medium. 4.Fifteen organic amendments were added (0.25-1.0 ﹪, w/w) individually to soil for cultivating year bulbelts of lily (cv. Casa Blanca). Only chinaberry meal reduced significantly percentage of bulblet rot. However, the bulblet weight was significantly stimulated with increasing amounts of oyster shell powder, rape-seed pomace and spent golden mushroom compost. 5.PH01-container medium consisted of 16L TSC filter cake, 3L carbonized rice hull, 1L vermiculite and 0.2L hog compost was successfully developed for cultivating year bulblet of lily (cv. Casa Blanca). PH01 container medium was more effective in reducing disease incidence of lily Fusarium wilt caused by F. medium, survival, nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum, biocontrol.oxysporum f.sp. lilii. 6.Streptomyces misionensis PMS101, Streptomyces sioyaensis PMS502, Bacillus thermoglucosidasius PMB207 and Non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum F403 were applied to control lily Fusairum wilt caused by F. oxysporum f.sp. lilii in the Chihu and Puli field tests. Non-pathogenic F. oxysporum F403 was more effective in reducing the disease incidence and increasing bulblet circumference of lily (cv. Casa Blanca) Keywords: lily Fusarium wilt, selective medium, container
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/30782
Appears in Collections:植物病理學系

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