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Control of peanut rust with flaxseed oil and its disease control mechanism
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|摘要:||由Puccinia arachidis所引起的花生銹病在全球花生種植區常造成重大的危害，雖然殺菌劑能夠防治花生銹病，但是對人類健康及環境的負面影響已引起高度關注，遂發展防治花生銹病的替代方法成為當前急迫的課題。在此研究中，將15種食用油在高速攪拌下製成乳化油，並測試對防治花生銹病的能力。結果顯示，15種食用油皆能降低花生銹病之發病率及夏孢子堆數，而亞麻油的效果最佳，其次為花生油及小麥胚芽油。2000 ppm亞麻油能夠完全防治花生銹病，即使降低濃度至500 ppm仍能降低50%以上之花生銹病發病率及夏孢子堆數。亞麻油在花生葉片上至少能夠停留16天，仍能有效降低花生銹病發病率及夏孢子堆數。當接種源濃度介於每微升10-40個夏孢子時，亞麻油仍然能有效降低花生銹病發病率及夏孢子堆數。在溫室試驗中，亞麻油在試驗一能夠完全防治花生銹病，而在試驗二可幾乎完全防治。在田間試驗中，兩次的試驗結果皆顯示亞麻油防治花生銹病的效果與殺菌劑－四氯異苯腈一樣好。接種P. arachidis之夏孢子之前塗佈亞麻油仍然能夠有效防治花生銹病，但接種後再塗佈亞麻油則失去其防治效果，顯示亞麻油為保護劑。在玻片或花生葉片上，亞麻油雖然無法抑制P. arachidis之夏孢子發芽，但是能降低其發芽管長度，並抑制形成附著器。因此亞麻油的作用機制為抑制附著器形成，進而阻止病原菌入侵植物組織，達到防治病害的目的。|
The rust disease of peanut caused by Puccinia arachidis is a destructive disease of major economic importance in almost all peanut growing areas of the world. Although several fungicides have been found to give good control of the disease, high concern for adverse effects of pesticides on human health and the environment makes the development of alternative methods for disease management an urgent need. In this study, 15 edible oils were emulsified by high speed trituration and tested for their ability to control peanut rust. Result showed that all the edible oils tested were able to reduce the rust incidence and pustule number. Among them, flaxseed oil was best followed by peanut oil and wheat germ oil. At 2000 ppm, flaxseed oil suppressed the disease development completely. Even at 500 ppm, flaxseed oil was able to reduce the rust incidence and pustule number more than 50%. Ability of flaxseed oil to reduce rust incidence and pustule number after being applied to peanut leaves remained unchanged for 16 days, the longest time tested. Flaxseed oil on peanut leaves was very effective in reducing rust disease at the inoculum concentrations ranging from 10 to 40 urediospores/μl. In the greenhouse trials, flaxseed oil at 2000 ppm completely suppressed the rust in Exp. 1 and nearly completely in Exp. 2. In the field trials, flaxseed oil was as effective as the fungicide chlorothalonil in the control of peanut rust in both Exp. 1 and Exp. 2. Flaxseed oil was effective in rust control when applied to peanut leaves before inoculation but not after inoculation, indicating that it functions as a protectant. On glass slide and peanut leaves, flaxseed oil did not inhibit germination, but reduced germ tube length and prevent appressorium formation. Therefore, the mode of action of flaxseed oil is prevention of appressorium formation which in turn prevents the penetration of the rust fungus into the host tissue.
|Appears in Collections:||植物病理學系|
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