Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/31010
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dc.contributor.advisor黃振文zh_TW
dc.contributor.advisorJen-Wen Huangen_US
dc.contributor.author葉彥良zh_TW
dc.contributor.authorYeh, Yen-Liangen_US
dc.date1997zh_TW
dc.date.accessioned2014-06-06T07:40:50Z-
dc.date.available2014-06-06T07:40:50Z-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11455/31010-
dc.description.abstract殘留於土壤中的丁基拉草殺草劑可引起豌豆 ( 台中十一號 ) 主根與側根 褐變壞死及生長受阻。將 10、50 及 100ppm 丁基拉草分別拌入土壤後, 經過 28 天,利用豌豆幼苗進行生物檢定, 發現豌豆主根褐化比率各為 13.73、 84.31 及100%。 在含有丁基拉草的土壤中,添加 5%(w/w) 金 針菇生長基質廢棄物,可有效保護豌豆根系免於丁基拉草的傷害。將不同 來源的金針菇生長基質廢棄物,添加於大里土或溪湖土中,皆具有促進豌 豆植株生長的功效;其中以取自草湖地區的金針菇生長基質廢棄物的效果 較取自霧峰者優良。添加金針菇生長基質廢棄物於含有或不含 50ppm 丁 基拉草的土壤中, 皆能大幅提升真菌、細菌及放線菌等土壤微生物在土 中的族群量, 其中以 Mucor spp.、 Penicillium spp.、 Trichoderma spp.、Streptomyces spp.、及 Bacillus spp. 等菌類出現 頻率較高。 由於金針菇生長基質廢棄物內含有高量的 Mucor spp.,因此 ,在土壤添加該堆肥後,隨即測定土中真菌、細菌與放線菌等微生物族群 的變化時,發現僅真菌量遽增十五倍左右。利用 FDA(Fluorescein diacetate) 的水解反應,測定土壤中添加 0 ∼ 5%(w/w) 金針菇生長基 質廢棄物及 0 ∼ 1000ppm 丁基拉草後的土壤微生物活性,發現土壤微生 物活性隨著金針菇生長基質廢棄物與丁基拉草濃度 ( 除 1000ppm 丁基拉 草的處理外 ) 的增加呈現漸增的趨勢。 在含有 50ppm丁基拉草的滅菌與 未滅菌土壤中添加 5%(w/w) 滅菌與未滅菌金針菇生長基質廢棄物,發現 添加未滅菌金針菇生長基質廢棄物的處理組,皆較添加滅過菌之金針菇生 長基質廢棄物的處理組,更可降低豌豆主根褐化比率達 22% 以上。 將出 現頻率高的微生物配製成菌體懸浮液,或將菌體懸浮液拌入滅菌過之金針 菇生長基質廢棄物培養七天製成微生物堆肥, 然後分別添加於含有 50ppm 丁基拉草的土壤中,發現微生物堆肥較單獨菌體懸浮液具有紓解丁 基拉草毒傷豌豆的效果;其中以 Mucor sp.(F-101) 微生物堆肥的效果最 佳。將不同土壤微生物分別接種於含有丁基拉草的馬鈴薯葡萄糖煎汁 (Potato Dextrose Broth; PDB) 中,培養七天後,經丙酮及石油醚萃取 後,利用氣相層析儀 (Gas chromatography) 偵測培養蛄中丁基拉草的殘 留量時, 發現 Mucor sp. (F-101)、Trichoderma hamatum(F-104)、 T. aureoviride (F-108)、 T. koningii (F-115)、 Penicilliumverrucosum Dierckx, var. cyclopium (F-116)、 Streptomyces sp. (A-107)、Streptomyces sp. (A-112) 及 Bacillus brevis (B-109) 等菌株皆具有分解丁基拉草的能力,其中以 Mucor sp. (F-101) 的分解丁基拉草的能力最強。 此外, 將不同微生物堆肥添加於 含有丁基拉草的土中, 經過七天,亦發現土中添加Mucor sp. (F-101) 微生物堆肥最具有代謝丁基拉草的效果。在含有丁基拉草的滅菌土壤及 PDB 培養液中,分別接種不同孢子濃度的 Mucor sp. (F-101), 七天後 ,發現丁基拉草的殘留量隨著接種該菌濃度的提高而遞減。zh_TW
dc.description.abstractThe tap and lateral roots of garden pea seedlings (cv. Taichung 11)could be significantly injured and inhibited by butachlor [2-chloro-2',6'-diethyl-N-(butoxymethyl)-acetanilide] in the soil. Using gardenpea seedlings to bioassay the toxicity of butachlor, the discolorationpercentage of their tap roots was 13.73, 84.31 or 100 when the seedswere respectively sown in soils pre-treated with 10, 50, or 100ppm ofbutachlor for one month. Amendment of soil with 5%(w/w) spent goldenmushroom compost(SGMC) was able to significantly promote the growthand prevent roots of garden pea seedlings from injury incited bybutachlor. Amendent of Tali or Chihu soils with either Tsaohu orWufeng SGMC was effective in gradually promoting the growth ofseedlings with increasing of SGMC concentrations from 1 to 5%(w/w).The effectiveness of Tsaohu SGMC was better than Wufeng SGMC. The sameeffect occured in Tali and Chihu soils containing 50ppm butachlorafter amendment of soil with Tsaochu or Wufeng SGMC. The SGMC was ableto stimulate proliferation of microbial populations, especially Mucorspp., Penicillium spp., Trichoderma spp., Streptomyces spp., andBacillus spp. in soil with or without butachlor. Determining microbialactivity in soil containing 0-5%(w/w) SGMC or 0-1000ppm butachlor byspectrophotometric determination of the hydrolysis of fluoresceindiacetate( FDA). Hydrolysis was found to increase with increasing thedoses of butachlor, excepted for 1000ppm, and concentrations of SGMC.Amendment of infested or disinfested soil containing 50ppm butachlorwith non-sterilized SGMC could reduce 22% or more injury severity oftap roots of garden pea compared to amendment with sterilized SGMC.Amendment of soil with F-101 microbial compost, sterilized SGMCcolonized by Mucor sp.(F-101) for 7 days at 28 ℃, was the sameeffective in alleviating root injury of garden pea seedlings bybutachlor as amendment with non-sterilized SGMC. Among manypredominant microorganisms, Mucor sp.( F-101), Trichodermahamatum(F-104), T. aureoviride(F-108), T. koningii(F-115), Penicilliumverrucosum Dierckx, var. cyclopium(F-116), Streptomyces sp.(A-107),Streptomyces sp.( A-112), and Bacillus brevis(B-109) were able todegrade butachlor in amended soil, potato dextrose broth(PDB), ornutrient broth(NB). Especially, Mucor sp.(F-101), Trichodermahamatum(F-104), Trichoderma aureoviride( F-108), Trichodermakoningii(F-115) and Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium(F-116) werebetter than others in ability to degrade butachlor. It was found thatthe residue of butachlor markedly decreased with increment of sporeconcentration when spore suspensions(0~5 × 10^8cfu/ml) of Mucorsp.(F-101) were inoculated into sterilized soil and PDB containing50ppm butachlor and incubated for 7 days.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USzh_TW
dc.publisher植物病理學系zh_TW
dc.subjectgarden peaen_US
dc.subject豌豆zh_TW
dc.subjectbutachloren_US
dc.subjectbiodegradationen_US
dc.subjectmicrobial composten_US
dc.subject丁基拉草zh_TW
dc.subject生物分解作用zh_TW
dc.subject微生物堆肥zh_TW
dc.title微生物與金針菇生長基質廢棄物紓解丁基拉草毒傷豌豆根系的效應zh_TW
dc.titleEffect of Microorganisms and Spent Golden Mushroom Compost on Alleviating Root Injury of Garden Pea Seedlings by Butachloren_US
dc.typeThesis and Dissertationzh_TW
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