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Induction of host resistance by Humicola phialophoroides isolated from soil
locally induced resistance
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|摘要:||生物防治被認為是未來可以減少或替代化學藥劑的主要病害防治策略。本研究發展出篩選具誘導抗病能力之微生物的方法，並由土壤中篩選出可利用植物源且誘導青椒產生抗青椒疫病菌的有益微生物，經由型態及分生的鑑定，由於其所產生的conidia 型態和Phialophora 屬的真菌相似，chlamydospores 和Humicola 屬的真菌相似，將其命名為Humicola phialophoroides。H. phialophoroides 經單孢分離出13 個分離株，其中B6分離株最能有效的誘導植株產生抗病性。H. phialophoroides KVF-2 B6分離株製成的發酵液經過離心，將菌絲團離下，以液態氮研磨，並以50% ethanol 萃取出的萃取液，誘導抗性的效果是最佳的。誘導抗性的有效物質無法由下位葉移動到上位葉或上位葉移動到下位葉，但是能由葉面移動到葉背，也能由葉背移動到葉面，顯示其不是長距離的系統性的抗病反應，而是局部性的抗病。另外有效物質可以由尖端往下移動至少5 mm，且從葉柄至尖端方向的移動，可到10 mm，但無法左右移動至5 mm 或以上。H. phialophoroides KVF-2 B6 之萃取液，誘導抗性的有效物質，為不帶電且在高溫、酸性、中性、鹼性環境都能穩定存在且能被活性炭吸附的物質。H. phialophoroides KVF-2 B6 之萃取液誘導抗性的效果至少可以維持十四天，且此真菌會產生chitinase 和cellulase，增加在防治多種病害上的可用性及潛力。|
The plant pathogens are usually controlled with chemicals, but their excessive use is harmful to human health and detrimental to the environment. It is, therefore, necessary to develop alternative ways of control. One such alternative method is biological control with microorganisms. A method was developed for isolating microorganisms capable of utilizing vegetable tissues for multiplication and screening their vegetable liquid cultures for ability to induce resistance of pepper against Phytophthora capsici. When the resulting cultures were screened for ability to induced resistance against Phytophthora blight of pepper, the culture of a new fungal species was found to be very effective in controlling the disease. The fungus produced both Phialophora type and Humicola type of asexual states and was therefore, named Humicola Phialophoroides. Among 13 single spore isolates of H. Phialophoroides tested, B6 isolate was found to the most effective. The substance responsible for inducing resistance was most efficiently obtained by grinding mycelia mats of H. phialophoroides KVF-2 B6 with liquid nitrogen, and extracting with 50% ethanol. The substance with ability to Induce resistance did not move from upper leaves to lower leaves or lower leaves to upper leaves, but it moved from leaf top to leaf base or leaf base to leaf top in the same leaf. Result showed that the substance did not presence long-distance systemic resistance. It only induced local resistance. The substance moved upward or down ward at least 5 mm upward, and 10 mm down ward in the same leaf. But it did not move from left to right or right to left. The substance with ability to Induced resistance did not have charges on their molecules, and was very stable under high temperature, alkaline, or acidic conditions. The culture extract of H. phialophoroides maintained the residual activity on leaves for at least 14 days and the fungi produced chitinase and cellulase. The technique developed in this study may be useful for isolating other microorganisms capable of inducing resistance against other pathogens.
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