Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/31404
標題: 疫病菌及露疫病菌有性世代之生物及生理特性
Biological and Physiological Characterization of Sexual Reproduction in Phytophthora and Peronophythora
作者: 林玫珠
Lin, Mei-Ju
關鍵字: Phytophthora capsici
青椒疫病
Peronophythora litchii
mitochondrion-zoospor fusion
mitochondria genome
Phytophthora colocasiae
Homothallic
sexual reproduction
mating type
荔枝露疫病
粒線體-游走孢子融合
粒線體基因組
芋頭疫病菌
同宗交配型菌株
有性世代
交配型
出版社: 植物病理學系所
引用: Chapter1-Literature cited 1. Andrivon, D. 1995. Biology, ecology, and epidemiology of the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans in soil. Phytopathology 85: 1053-1056. 2. Ann, P. J., and W. H. Ko. 1988. Hormonal heterthallism in Phytophthora parasitica: a novel mode of sexual reproduction. J. Gen. Microbiol. 134: 2895-2992. 3. Ann, P. J., and W. H. Ko. 1989. Effect of chloroneb and ethanol on mating type of Phytophthora parasitica and P. cinnamomi. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 30: 207-210. 4. Ann, P. J., and W. H. Ko. 1992. Survey of antibiotic resistance and dependence in Phytophthora. Mycologia 84: 82-86. 5. Chang, T. T, and W. H. Ko. 1990. Effect of metalaxyl on mating type of Phytophthora infestans and P. parasitica. Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn. 56: 194-198. 6. Chern, L.L., C.S. Tang, and W. H. Ko. 1999. Characterization of α hormones of Phytophthora parasitica. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 40: 79-85. 7. Chesnick, J. M., K. Tuxbury, A. Coleman, G. Burger, and B. F. Lang. 1996. Utility of the mitochondrial nad4L gene for algal and protistan phylogenetic analysis. J. Phycol. 32: 452-456. 8. Érsek, T., J. T. English, and J. E. Schoelz. 1995. Creation of species hybrids of Phytophthora with modified host ranges by zoospore fusion. Phytopathology 85: 1343-1347. 9. Érsek, T., U. Hölker, and M. Höfer. 1991. Non-lethal immobilization of zoospores of Phytophthora infestans by Li+. Mycol. Res. 95: 970-972. 10. Erwin, D. C., and O. K. Roberia. 1996. Phytophthora Diseases Worldwide. St. Paul, Minnesota: APS Press. 562 p. 11. Förster, H., M. D. Coffey, H. Elwood, and M. L. Sogin. 1990. Sequence analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA's of three zoosporic fungi and implications of fungal evolution. Mycologia 82: 306-312. 12. Fyfe, A. M., and D. S. Shaw. 1992. An analysis of self-fertility in field isolates of Phytophthora infestans. Mycol. Res. 96: 390-394. 13. Gallegly, M. E., and C. Hong. 2008. Phytophthora: Identifing Species by Morphology and DNA Fingerprints. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, Minn. 158pp. 14. Groves, C. T., and J. B. Ristaino. 2000. Commercial fungicide formulations induce in vitro oospore formation and phenotypic change in mating type in Phytophthora infestans. Phytopathology 90:1201-1208. 15. Gu, Y. H., and W. H. Ko. 2000. Transplantation and subsequent behavior of mitochondria in cells of Phytophthora. Can. J. Microbiol. 46: 992-997. 16. Gu, Y. H., and W. H. Ko. 2005. Evidence for mitochondrial gene control of mating types in Phytophthora. Can. J. Microbiol. 51: 934-940. 17. Hwang, S. C. and W. H. Ko. 1978. Biology of chlamydospores, sporangia, and zoospores of Phytophthora cinnamomi in soil. Phytopathology 68: 726-731. 18. Judelson, H. S. 1996. Genetic and physical variability at the mating type locus of the oomycete, Phytophthora infestans. Genetics 144: 1005-1013. 19. Judelson, H. S., L. J. Spielmanan, and R. C. Shattock. 1995. Genetic mapping and non-Mendelian segregation of mating type loci in the Oomycete, Phytophthora infestans. Genetics 141: 503-512. 20. Ko, W. H. 1978. Heterothallic Phytophthora: evidence for hormonal regulation of sexual reproduction. J. Gen. Microbiol. 107: 15-18. 21. Ko, W. H. 1980. Hormonal regulation of sexual reproduction in Phytophthora. J. Gen. Microbiol. 116: 459-463. 22. Ko, W. H. 1983. Isolation and partial characterization of α hormones produced by Phytophthora parasitica. J. Gen. Microbiol. 129: 1397-1401. 23. Ko, W. H. 2007. Hormonal regulation of sexual reproduction in Phytophthora. Bot. Stud. 48: 365-375. 24. Lin, M. J., and W. H. Ko. 2008. Occurrence of isolates of Phytophthora colocasiae in Taiwan with homothallic behavior and its significance. Mycologia 100: 727-734. 25. Mayton, H., C. D. Smart, B. C. Moravec, E. S. G. Mizubuti, A. E. Muldoon, and W. E. Fry. 2000. Oospore survival and pathogenicity of single oospore recombinant progeny from a cross involving us-17 and us-8 genotypes of Phytophthora infestans. Plant Dis. 84:1190-1196. 26. Mortimer, A. M., D. S. Shaw, and E. R. Sansome. 1977. Genetical studies of secondary homothallism in Phytophthora drechsleri. Arch. of Microbiol. 111: 255-259. 27. Qi, J., T. Asano, M. Jinno, K. Matsui, K. Atsumi, Y. Sakagami, and M. Ojika. 2005. Characterization of a Phytophthora Mating Hormone. Science 309: 1828. 28. Quitugua, R. J., and E. E. Trujillo. 1998. Survival of Phytophthora colocasiae in field soil at various temperatures and water matric potentials. Plant Dis 82:203-207. 29. Sansome, E. 1980. Reciprocal translocation heterozygosity in heterothallic species of. Phytophthora and its significance. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc. 74:175-185. 30. Schmitthenner, A. F. 1985. Problem and progress in control of Phytophthora root rot of soybean. Plant Dis 69:362-368. 31. Sneh, B. and D. L. McIntosh. 1974. Studies on the behavior and survival of Phytophthora cactorum in soil. Can J Bot 52: 795-802. 32. Van der Lee, T., I. De Witte, A. Drenth, C. Alfonso, and F. Govers. 1997. AFLP linkage map of the Oomycete Phytophthora infestans. Fungal Genet. Biol. 21: 278-291. 33. Waterhouse, G. M., F. J. Newhook, and D. J. Stamps. 1983. Present criteria for classification of Phytophthora. p. 139-147. In: Phytophthora: Its Biology, Taxonomy, Ecology, and Pathology. Erwin, D.C., S. Bartniki-Garcia, and P. H. Tsao, eds. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, Minnesota. 34. Weste, G. 1983. Population dynamics and survival of Phytophthora. p. 237-257. In: Phytophthora: Its Biology, Taxonomy, Ecology, and Pathology. Erwin, D.C., S. Bartniki-Garcia, and P. H. Tsao, eds. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, Minnesota. Chapter2-Literature cited 1. Andrivon, D. 1995. Biology, ecology, and epidemiology of the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans in soil. Phytopathology 85: 1053-1056. 2. Ann, P. J., C. W. Kao, and W. H. Ko. 1986. Mating-type distribution of Phytophthora colocasiae in Taiwan. Mycopathologia 93: 193-194. 3. Ann, P. J., and W. H. Ko. 1989. Effect of chloroneb and ethazol on mating type of Phytophthora parasitica and P. cinnamomi. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 30: 207-210. 4. Beoswinkel, H. J. 1976. Storage of fungal cultures in water. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc .66: 183-185. 5. Chang, T. T., and W. H. Ko. 1990. Effect of metalaxyl on mating type of Phytophthora infestans and P. parasitica. Ann Phytopathol. Soc. Jap. 56: 194-198. 6. Erwin, D. C., and O. K. Roberia. 1996. Phytophthora diseases worldwide. St. Paul, Minnesota: APS Press. 562 p. 7. Fyfe, A. M., and D. S. Shaw. 1992. An analysis of self-fertility in field isolates of Phytophthora infestans. Mycol. Res. 96: 390-394. 8. Gollifer, D. E., G. V. H. Jackson, and F. J. Newhook. 1979. Survival of inoculum of the leaf blight fungus Phytophthora colocasiae infecting taro, Colocasia esculenta in the Solomon Islands. Ann. Appl. Biol. 94: 379-390. 9. Gomez, E. T. 1925. Leaf blight of gabi. Philipp Agric 14: 429-440. 10. Ho, H. H., P. J. Ann, and H. S. Chang. 1995. The Genus Phytophthora in Taiwan. Taipei, Taiwan: Institute of Botany Academia Sinica. 86 p. 11. Ho, H. H., W. Y. Zhuang, Z. R. Liang, and Y. N. Yu. 1983. Phytophthora cinnamomi on black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) in Jiangsu Province of China. Mycologia 75: 881-886. 12. Ho, W. C., and W. H. Ko. 1997. A simple method for obtaining single-spore isolates of fungi. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 38: 41-44. 13. Hwang, S. C., W. H. Ko, and M. Aragaki. 1975. A simplified method for sporangium production by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Mycologia 67: 1233-1234. 14. Jee, H. J., C. S. Tang, and W. H. Ko. 1997. Stimulation of sexual reproduction in Phytophthora cactorum by phospholipids is not due to sterol contamination. Microbiology 143: 1631-1638. 15. Jee, H. J., C. S. Tang, and W. H. Ko. 2002. Characterization of phytochemicals stimulatory to sexual reproduction in Phytophthora cactorum and P. parasitica. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 43: 203-210. 16. Jee, H. J., and W. H. Ko. 1997. Stimulation of sexual reproduction of Phytophthora cactorum and P. parasitica by fatty acids and related compounds. Mycol. Res. 101: 1140-1144. 17. Khaki, I. A., and D. S. Shaw. 1974. The inheritance of drug resistance and compatibility type in Phytophthora drechsleri. Genet. Res. 23: 75-86. 18. Ko, W. H. 1979. Mating-type distribution of Phytophthora colocasiae on the island of Hawaii. Mycologia 71: 434-437. 19. Ko, W. H. 1980. Sexuality, evolution and origin of Phytophthora. Plant Prot. Bull. 22:141-151. 20. Ko, W. H. 1981. Reversible change of mating type in Phytophthora parasitica. J Gen. Microbiol. 125: 451-454. 21. Ko, W. H. 1994. An alternative possible origin of the A2 mating type of Phytophthora infestans outside Mexico. Phytopathology 84: 1224-1227. 22. Ko, W. H. 2007. Hormonal regulation of sexual reproduction in Phytophthora. Bot. Stud. 48:365-375. 23. Ko, W. H., L. L. Chase, and R. K. Kunimoto. 1973. A microsyringe method for determining concentration of fungal propagules. Phytopathology 63: 1206-1207. 24. Mortimer, A. M., D. S. Shaw, and E. E. Sansome. 1977. Genetical studies of secondary homothallism in Phytophthora drechsleri. Arch. Microbiol. 111: 255-259. 25. Mosa, A. A., M. Kato, N. Sato, K. Kobayashi, and A. Ogoshi. 1989. Occurrence of the A2 mating type of Phytophthora infestans on potato in Japan. Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Japan 55: 615-620. 26. Narula, K. L., and R. S. Mehrotra. 1980. Occurrence of A1 mating type of Phytophthora colocasiae. Indian Phytopathol. 33: 603-604. 27. Niederhauser, J. S. 1961. Genetic studies of Phytophthora infestans and Solanum species in relation to late blight resistance in the potato. In: Recent Advances in Botany. Toronto, Canada: Univ. Toronts. p 491-497. 28. Quitugua, R. J., and E. E. Trujillo. 1998. Survival of Phytophthora colocasiae in field soil at various temperatures and water matric potentials. Plant Dis. 82: 203-207. 29. Schmitthenner, A. F. 1985. Problem and progress in control of Phytophthora root rot of soybean. Plant Dis. 69: 362-368. 30. Shattock, R. C., D. S. Shaw, A. M. Fyte, J. R. Dunn, K. H. Loney, and J. A. Shattok. 1990. Phenotypes of Phytophthora infestans collected in England and Wales from 1985 to 1988: mating type response to metalaxyl and isozyme analysis. Plant Pathol. 39: 242-248. 31. Sneh, B., and D. L. McIntosh. 1974. Studies on the behavior and survival of Phytophthora cactorum in soil. Can. J Bot. 52: 795-802. 32. Tantius, P. H., A. M. Fyte, D. S. Shaw, and R. C. Shattock. 1986. Occurrence of the A2 mating type and self-fertile isolates of Phytophthora infestans in England and Wales. Plant Pathol. 35: 578-581. 33. Tucker, C. M. 1931. The Taxonomy of Phytophthora deBary. Research Bulletin of the Missouri Agricultural Research Station No.153. 34. Vartanian, V. G., and R. M. Endo. 1985. Overwintering hosts, compatibility types and races of Phytophthora infestans on tomato in Southern California. Plant Dis. 69: 516-519. 35. Weste, G. 1983. Population dynamics and survival of Phytophthora. p. 237-257. In: Phytophthora: Its Biology, Taxonomy, Ecology, and Pathology. Erwin, D.C., S. Bartniki-Garcia, and P. H. Tsao, eds. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, Minnesota. 36. Xu, X. L., and W. H. Ko. 1998. A quantitative confined inoculation method for studies of pathogenicity of fungi on plants. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 39: 187-190. 37. Zhang, K. M. , F. C. Zhang, Y. D. Li, P. J. Ann, and W. H. Ko. 1994. Isolates of Phytophthora colocasiae from Hainan Island in China: evidence suggesting an Asian origin of this species. Mycologia 86: 108-112. Chapter3-Literature cited 1. Ansani, C. V., and K. Matsuoka. 1984. Survival of Phytophthora casici in soil. Rev. Plant Pathol. 63: 4205. 2. Bartnicki-Garcia, S., and E. Lippman. 1966. Liberation of protoplasts from the mycelium of Phytophthora. Journal of General Microbiology 42: 41 1-416. 3. Beoswinkel, H. J. 1976. Storage of fungal cultures in water. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc .66: 183-185. 4. Carter, D. A., K.W. Buck, S.A. Archer, T. Van der Lee, R.C. Shattock, and D. S. Shaw. 1999. The detection of nonhybrid, trisomic, and triploid offspring in sexual progeny of a mating of Phytophthora infestans. Fungal Genet. Biol. 26: 198-208. 5. Casselton, L. A. 2008. Fungal sex genes-searching for the ancestors. Bioessays 30:711-714. 6. Chapman, J. A., and R. Vujicic. 1965. The fine structure of sporangia of Phytophthora erythroseptica Pethyb. J. Gen. Microbiol. 41: 285-282. 7. Cvitanich, C., M. Salcido, and H. Judelson. 2006. Concerted evolution of a tandemly arrayed family of mating-specific genes in Phytophthora analyzed through inter- and intraspecific comparisons. Mol. Gen. Genomics 275: 169-184. 8. Érsek, T., J. T. English, and J. E. Schoelz. 1995. Creation of species hybrids of Phytophthora with modified host ranges by zoospore fusion. Phytopathology 85: 1343-1347. 9. Érsek, T., U. Hölker, and M. Höfer. 1991. Non-lethal immobilisation of zoospores of Phytophthora infestans by Li+. Mycol. Res. 95: 970-972. 10. Erwin, D. C., and O. K. Roberia. 1996. Phytophthora Diseases Worldwide. St. Paul, Minnesota: APS Press. 562 p. 11. Fabritius, A. L., and H. S. Judelson. 1997. Mating-type loci segregate aberrantly in Phytophthora infestans but normal in Phytophthora parasitica: Implications for models of mating-type determination. Curr. Genet. 32:60-65. 12. Fabritius, A. L., C. Cvitanich, and H. S. Judelson. 2002. Stage-specific gene expression during sexual development in Phytophthora infestans. Mol. Microbiol. 45:1057-66. 13. Grant, B. R., J. M. Griffith, and H. R. Irving. 1986. A model to explain ion-induced differentiation in zoospores of Phytophthora palmivora. Exp. Mycol. 10: 89-98. 14. Gu, Y. H., and W. H. Ko. 1998. Occurrence of parasexual cycle following transfer of isolated nuclei into protoplasts of Phytophthora parasitica. Curr. Genet. 143: 120-123. 15. Gu, Y. H., and W. H. Ko. 2000a. Segregation following interspecific transfer of isolated nuclei between Phytophthora parasitica and P. capsici. Can. J. Microbiol. 46: 410-416. 16. Gu, Y. H., and W. H. Ko. 2000b. Transplantation and subsequent behavior of mitochondria in cells of Phytophthora. Can. J. Microbiol. 46: 992-997. 17. Gu, Y. H., and W. H. Ko. 2001. Creation of hybrid vigor through nuclear transplantation in Phytophthora. Can. J. Microbiol. 47: 662-666. 18. Gu, Y. H., and W. H. Ko. 2005. Evidence for mitochondrial gene control of mating types in Phytophthora. Can. J. Microbiol. 51: 934-940. 19. Hausbeck, M. K., and K. H. Lamour. 2004. Phytophthora capsici on vegetable crops: research progress and management challenges. Plant Dis. 88: 1292-1303. 20. Ho, W. C., and W. H. Ko. 1997. A simple method for obtaining single-spore isolates of fungi. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 38: 41-44. 21. Judelson, H. S. 1996a. Chromosomal heteromorphism linked to the mating type locus of the oomycete Phytophthora infestans. Mol. Gen. Genet. 252: 155-161. 22. Judelson, H. S. 1996b. Genetic and physical variability at the mating type locus of the oomycete, Phytophthora infestans. Genetics 144:1005-1013. 23. Judelson, H. S. 2009. Sexual reproduction in Oomycetes: biology, diversity, and contributions to finess. In: Oomycete Genetics and Genomics. Lamour, K. and Kamoun, S. ed. Hoboken, New Jersey. 24. Judelson, H. S., L. J. Spielman, and R. C. Shattock. 1995. Genetic mapping and non-Mendelian segregation of mating type loci in the oomycete, Phytophthora infestans. Genetics 141: 503-512. 25. Ko, W. H. 1978. Heterothallic Phytophthora: evidence for hormonal regulation of sexual reproduction. J. Gen. Microbiol. 107: 15-18. 26. Ko, W. H. 1994. An alternative possible origin of A2 mating type of Phytophthora infestans outside Mexico. Phytopathology 84: 1224-1227. 27. Ko, W. H. 2007. Hormonal regulation of sexual reproduction in Phytophthora. Bot. Stud. 48:365-375. 28. Ko, W. H., L. L. Chase, and R. K. Kunimoto. 1973. A microsyringe method for determining concentration of fungal propagules. Phytopathology 63: 1206-1207. 29. LeJohn, H. B., and J. S. Lovett. 1966. Ribonucleic acid and protein synthesis in Rhizophlyctis rosea zoospores. J. Bacteriol. 91:709-717. 30. Liu, T. H., M. J. Lin, and W. H. Ko. 2010. Factors affecting protoplast formation by Rhizoctonia solani. New Biotechnology 27: 64-69. 31. Man in ‘t Veld, W. A., W. J. Veenbaas-Rijks, E. Ilieva , A. W. A. M. de Cock, P. J. M. Bonants, and R. Pieters. 1998. Natural hybrids of Phytophthora nicotianae and Phytophthora cactorum demonstrated by isozyme analysis and random amplified polymorphic DNA. Phytopathology 88: 922-929. 32. Mortimer, A. M., D. S. Shaw, and E. R. Sansome. 1977. Genetical studies of secondary homothallism in Phytophthora drechsleri. Arch. Microbiol. 111:255-259. 33. Parra, G., and J. B. Ristaino. 2001. Resistance to mefenoxam and metalaxyl among field isolates of Phytophthora capsici causing Phytophthora blight of bell pepper. Plant Dis. 85:1069-1075. 34. Randall, T. A., A. Ah Fong, and H. S. Judelson. 2003. Chromosomal heteromorphism and an apparent translocation detected using a BAC contig spanning the mating type locus of Phytophthora infestans. Fungal Genet. Biol. 38: 75-84. 35. Ristaino, J. B. 1990. Intraspecific variation among isolates of Phytophthora capsici from pepper and cucurbit fields in North Carolina. Phytopathology 80:1253-1259. 36. Scheepens, P. C., and H. Fehrmann. 1978. Mitochondrial Electron Transport in Peronosporales. J. Phytopath. 92: 231-239. 37. Scheepens, P. C., and H. Fehrmann. 1978. Mitochondrial electron transport in Peronosporales I. Isolation and properties of Pythium debaryanum and Phytophthora infestans mitochondria. Phytopath. Z. 92: 217-230. 38. Silvar, C., F. Merino., and J. Díaz. 2006. Diversity of Phytophthora capsici in northwest Spain: analysis of virulence, metalaxyl response, and molecular characterization. Plant Dis. 90:1135-1142. 39. Sivan, A., G. E. Harman, and T. E. Stasz. (1990) Transfer of isolated nuclei into protoplasts of Trichoderma harzianum. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56: 2404-2409. 40. Sulo, P., P. Griac, V. Klobucníková, and L. Kovác. 1989. A method for the efficient transfer of isolated mitochondria into yeast protoplasts. Curr. Genet. 15: 1-6. 41. Van der Lee, T., A. Testa, A. Robold, J. van ‘t Klooster, and F. Govers. 2004. High density genetic linkage maps of Phytophthora infestans reveal trisomic progeny and chromosomal rearrangements. Genetics 167:1643-1661. 42. Van der Lee, T., I. De Witte, A. Drenth, C. Afonso, and F. Govers. 1997. AFLP linkage map of the oomycete Phytophthora infestans. Fungal Genet. Biol. 21: 278-291. 43. Wang, W. M., R. Y. Wu, and W. H. Ko. 2005. Variation and segregation following nuclear transplantation in Antrodia cinnamomea. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 46: 217-222. 44. Whittaker, S. L., S. J. Assinder, and, D. S. Shaw. 1994. Inheritance of mitochondrial DNA in Phytophthora infestans. Mycol. Res. 98: 569-575. 45. Yamamoto, M. and J. Tanino. 1961. Physiological studies on the formation and germination of sporangia of Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary. Forschn Geb. PflKrankh. Kyoto 7: 7-22. 46. Yoshida, K. 1979. Interspecific and intraspecific mitochondria-induced cytoplasmic transformation in yeasts. Plant Cell Physiol. 20: 851-856. Chapter4-Literature cited 1. Ann, P. J., and W. H. Ko. 1980. Oospore germination of Peronophythora litchii. Mycologia 72:611-614. 2. Fabritius, A. L., C. Cvitanich, and H. S. Judelson. 2002. Stage-specific gene expression during sexual development in Phytophthora infestans. Molecular Microbiology 45: 1057-1066. 3. Fyfe, A. M., and D. S. Shaw. 1992. An analysis of self-fertility in field isolates of Phytophthora infestans. Mycol. Res. 96: 390-394. 4. Gorsich, S. W., and J. M. Shaw. 2004. Importance of mitochondrial dynamics during meiosis and sporulation. Molecular Biology of the cell 15: 4369-4381. 5. Gu, Y. H., and W. H. Ko. 2000. Transplantation and subsequent behavior of mitochondria in cells of Phytophthora. Can. J. Microbiol. 46: 992-997. 6. Gu, Y. H., and W. H. Ko. 2005. Evidence for mitochondrial gene control of mating types in Phytophthora. Can. J. Microbiol. 51: 934-940. 7. Guo, L. Y., and W. H. Ko. 1991. Hormonal regulation of sexual reproduction and mating type change in heterothallic Pythium splendens. Mycol. Res. 95: 452-456. 8. Huang, T. P., Y. Yeh, and Dean D. S. Tzeng. 2010. Heteroduplex mobility assay for identification and phylogenetic analysis of anthracnose. Fungi. J Phytopathol. 158: 46-55. 9. Judelson, H. S. 1996a. Chromosomal heteromorphism linked to the mating type locus of the oomycete Phytophthora infestans. Mol. Gen. Genet. 252: 155-161. 10. Judelson, H. S., L. J. Spielman, and R. C. Shattock. 1995. Genetic mapping and non-Mendelian segregation of mating type loci in the oomycete, Phytophthora infestans. Genetics 141: 503-512. 11. Ko, W. H. 1978. Heterothallic Phytophthora: evidence for hormonal regulation of sexual reproduction. J. Gen. Microbiol. 107: 15-18. 12. Ko, W. H. 1980. Hormonal regulation of sexual reproduction in Phytophthora. J. Gen. Microbiol. 116: 459-463. 13. Ko, W. H. 1994. An alternative possible origin of A2 mating type of Phytophthora infestans outside Mexico. Phytopathology 84: 1224-1227. 14. Ko, W. H. 2007. Hormonal regulation of sexual reproduction in Phytophthora. Bot. Stud. 48: 365-375. 15. Ko, W. H., and R. K. Kunimoto. 1981. Hormone production and reception among different isolates of Phytophthora parasitica and P. palmivora. Mycologia 73: 440-444. 16. Ko, W. H., H. S. Chang, H. J. Su, C. C. Chen, and L. S. Leu. 1978. Pronophythoraceae, a new family of Peronosporales. Mycologia 70: 380-384. 17. Ko, W. H., L. L. Chase, and R. K. Kunimoto. 1973. A microsyringe method for determining concentration of fungal propagules. Phytopathology 63: 1206-1207. 18. Lin, M. J., and W. H. Ko. 2008. Occurrence of isolates of Phytophthora colocasiae in Taiwan with homothallic behavior and its significance. Mycologia 100: 727-734. 19. Liu, T. H., M. J. Lin, and W. H. Ko. 2010. Factors affecting protoplast formatopn by Rhizoctonia. New Biotechnol. 27:64-69. 20. Mortimer, A. M., D. S. Shaw, and E. R. Sansome. 1977. Genetical studies of secondary homothallism in Phytophthora drechsleri. Arch. of Microbiol. 111: 255-259. 21. Nunnari, J., W. F. Marshall, A. Straight, A. Murray, J. W. Sedat, and P. Walter. 1997. Mitochondrial transmission during mating in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is determined by mitochondrial fusion and fission and the intramitochondrial segregation of mitochondrial DNA. Molecular biology of the cell 8: 1233-1242. 22. Smith, M. L., L. C. Duchesne, J. N. Bruhn, and J. B. Anderson. 1990. Mitochondrial genetics in a natural population of the plant pathogen Armillaria. Genetics 136: 575-582. 23. Van der Lee, T., A. Testa, A. Robold, J. van ‘t Klooster, and F. Govers. 2004. High density genetic linkage maps of Phytophthora infestans reveal trisomic progeny and chromosomal rearrangements. Genetics 167:1643-1661. 24. Yan, Z., and J. Xu. 2005. Fungal mitochondrial inheritance and evolution. In Evolutionary genetics of fungi. Edited by J. Xu. Horizon Scientific Press, England. pp. 221-252. 25. Zhang, Z. G., X. B. Zheng, Y. C. Wang, and W. H. Ko. 2007. Evalution of the rearrangement of taxonomic position of Peronophythora litchii based on partial DNA sequence. Bot. Stud. 48: 79-89. Chapter5-Literature cited 1. Ann, P. J., and W. H. Ko. 1989. Effect of cholroneb and ethanol on mating type of Phytophthora parasitica and P. cinnamomi. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 30: 207-210. 2. Avila-Adame, C. L. Gómez-Alpizar, L. V. Zismann, K. M. Jones, C. R. Buell, J. B. Ristaino. 2006. Mitochondrial genome sequences and molecular evolution of the Irish potato framine pathogen, Phytophthora infestans. Mitochondrial genome sequences and molecular evolutionof the Irich. 2006 Curr. Genet 49: 39-46. 3. Brich, P. R. J., and A. O. Avrova. 2009. Gene expression profiling. p. 477-492. In: Oomycete Genetics and Genomics. Lamour, K., and S. Kamoun, eds. John Wiley and Son, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. 4. Chang, T. T., and W. H. Ko. 1990. Resistance to fungicides and antibiotics in Phytophthora parasitica: genetic nature and use in hybrid determination. Phytopathology 80: 1414-1421. 5. Collombet, J. M., V. C. Wheeler, F. Vogel, and C. Coutelle. 1997. Introduction of plasmid DNA into isolated mitochondria by electroporation. J. Biol. Chem. 272: 5342-5347. 6. Griffith, G. W., and D. S. Shaw. 1998. Polymorphisms in Phytophthora infestans: four mitochondrial haplotypes are detected after PCR amplification of DNA from pure cultures or from host lesions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64: 4007-4010. 7. Gu, Y. H., and W. H. Ko. 2000. Transplantation and subsequent behavior of mitochondria in cells of Phytophthora. Can. J. Microbiol. 46: 992-997. 8. Jansen, R. P.S., and J. B. Graham. 2004. Mitochondrial dysfunction in reproduction. Mitochondrion 4: 577-600. 9. Martin, F. N. D. Bensasson, B. M. Tyler, and J. L. Boore. 2007. Mitochondrial genomw sequences and comparative genomics of Phytophthora ramorum and P. sojae. Curr. Genet. 51: 285-296. 10. Martin, F. N., and P. W. Tooley. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships among Phytophthora species inferred from sequence analysis of mitochondrially encoded cytochrome oxidase I and II genes. Mycologia 95: 269-284. 11. McNabb, S. A., and G. R. Klassen. 1988. Uniformity of mitochondrial DNA complexity in Oomycetes and the evolution of the inverted repeat. Exp. Mycol. 12: 233-242. 12. Moore, M. J., A. Dhingra, P. S. Soltis, R. Shaw, W. G. Farmerie, K. M. Folta, and D. E. Soltis1. 2006. Rapid and accurate pyrosequencing of angiosperm plastid genomes. http://www.biomedicentral.com/1471-2229/6/17. 13. Paquin, B., M. J. Laforest, L. Forget, I. Roewer, Z. Wang, J. Longcore, and B. F. Lang. 1997. The fungal mitochondrial genome project: evolution of fungal mitochondrial genomes and their gene expression. Curr. Genet. 31: 380-395. 14. Schena, L., and D. E. L. Cooke. 2006. Assessing the potential of regions of the nuclear and mitochondrial genome to develop a “molecular toolbox” for the detection and characterization of Phytophthora species. J. Microbiol. Methods 67: 70-85. 15. Whisson, S. C., A. O. Avrova, L. J. G. Briggs, and P. van West. 2009. Mechanisms and application of genes silencing in Oomycetes. In: Oomycete Genetics and Genomics. Lamour, K., and S. Kamoun, eds. John Wiley and Son, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. 16. Yoon, Y. G. and M. D. Koob. 2005. Transformation of isolated mammalian mitochondria by bacterial conjugation. Nucleic acids research 33: 1-8. 17. Yoon, Y. G., and M. D. Koob. 2003. Efficient cloning and engineering of entire mitochondrial genomes in Escherichia coli and transfer into transcriptionally active mitochondria. Nucl. Acids Res. 31: 1407-1415. 18. Yoon, Y. G., Y. W. Yang, and M. D. Koob. 2009. PCR-based cloning of the complete mouse mitochondrial genome and stable engineering in Escherichia coli. Biotechnol Lett 31: 1671-1676. 19. Zheng, D., G. Olaya, and W. Köller. 2000. Characterization of laboratory mutants of Venturia inaequalis resistant to the strobilurin-related fungicide kresoxim-methyl. Curr. Genet. 38: 148-155.
摘要: 在疫病菌 (Phytophthora) 屬中,大多數的種 (species) 為病原菌,他們引起主要的糧食作物、蔬菜及水果發生病害,成為生產過程的重要限制因子。有些種為同宗交配型 (homothallic),單獨培養時可產生卵孢子,有些種為異宗交配型(heterothallic),必須在同種或不同種間的A1及A2交配型進行配對才會產生卵孢子;然而,有性繁殖過程中所發生的遺傳重組,會使疫病菌創造出新的遺傳變異及新的病原性的個體。芋頭疫病菌 (Phytophthora colocasiae) 引起芋葉疫病及塊莖腐爛,2007年之前,鮮少有研究證明關於芋頭疫病菌在土壤中存活的情形。因此,本研究對台灣芋頭疫病菌重新調查其交配型 (mating type),調查過程中,由台灣中部罹病芋葉上分離出7個同宗交配型的芋頭疫病菌株;當這些同宗交配型的菌株接種在活的芋頭葉柄組織,放入土壤中經過一個月,芋頭葉柄上產生大量的卵孢子,表示在自然界中,這些卵孢子可能做為芋頭疫病菌的存活構造,同時成為遺傳變異的來源。 已知疫病菌屬的有性繁殖是藉由賀爾蒙 (hormone) 來進行調控,然而交配型的遺傳特性至今仍不清楚。本研究以青椒疫病菌 (Phytophthora capsici) 為材料,發展出有效率的粒線體 (mitochondrion) 或細胞核 (nucleus) 與游走孢子融合的系統,用以研究交配型的遺傳控制。將A1交配型的粒線體轉移到A2交配型的游走孢子中,獲得的粒線體雜交株 (mitochondrial hybrids) 可在單獨培養時產生卵孢子,表示交配型由粒線體上的基因所控制;經RFLP分析其粒線體DNA,結果顯示粒線體雜交株中確實帶有轉移的外來粒線體DNA,證明A1交配型菌株的粒線體的確成功轉移進入A2交配型菌株的游走孢子內。藉著粒線體與游走孢子融合的方法,成功將粒線體轉移的比率在0.8 到1.0% 之間,相較於粒線體與原生質體融合 (mitochondrion-protoplast fusion) 的方法,粒線體與游走孢子融合的方法更為簡單而且成本較低。 我們的結果顯示荔枝露疫病菌 (Peronophythora litchii) 與疫病菌相同具有產生α賀爾蒙的能力,產生的賀爾蒙可刺激青椒疫病菌的A1與A2交配型菌株產生卵孢子。將游走孢子融合的方法應用於不同屬之間,把荔枝露疫病菌的粒線體或細胞核與青椒疫病菌的游走孢子進行融合,獲得的粒線體雜交株具有與荔枝露疫病菌相同的同宗交配型,所產生的卵孢子型態大部分與提供粒線體的荔枝露疫病菌相似;然而,細胞核雜交株 (nuclear hybrids) 的交配型都與青椒疫病菌相同。這些結果表示在疫病菌及露疫病菌的交配型的基因都編碼在粒線體DNA上而非細胞核DNA上。由Heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA) 分析顯示粒線體雜交株中帶有外來移轉的粒線體DNA,再一次證實疫病菌之交配型由粒線體上的基因所控制,而露疫病菌調控有性繁殖的過程也與疫病菌相似。 二個相同親本來源但不同交配型的二菌株Pca1-Cn5 A1及PcaA1-Cn24 A2,將其粒線體基因組進行全解序,得到的基因組大小分別為38417 bp及38414 bp,它們的A+T含量為78.2%。粒線體基因組中包含61個已知功能的基因及六個未知功能的基因,這些已知的功能的基因,包含有18個為電子傳遞相關蛋白、16個為核醣蛋白、2個為核醣RNA與25個轉移RNA。在A1與A2交配型的二菌株粒線體基因組間有9個單核苷酸多型性 (single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs),由這些結果推論A1與A2交配型基因位於不同的粒線體DNA上。綜合本研究之結果顯示疫病菌的交配型基因位於粒線體DNA上,顯然這九個SNPs可能參與並決定交配型,然而這些SNPs中,與調控交配型相關的機制仍需更進一步的研究才能釐清。
Most species of Phytophthora are pathogens and diseases caused by them are an important limiting factor in the production of staple food crops, vegetables and fruits. Some species of Phytophthora are homothallic which produce oospores in single culture, and the others are heterothallic which produce normal oospores when A1 and A2 mating types of the same or different species are paired in culture. Sexual recombination in Phytophthora will create new genetic variation and produce unusually pathogenic individuals. Before 2007, survival of Phytophthora colocasiae, the causal organism of taro leaf blight and corm rot, in soil is poorly documented. During our resurvey of the mating type distribution of P. colocasiae in Taiwan, 7 new homothallic isolates were obtained from diseased taro leaves in central Taiwan. The homothallic isolates produced abundant oospores in live tissue of taro petioles on soil, indicating the possibility of oospores as a survival structure and the source of genetic variation in certain areas in nature. In Phytophthora, hormone regulation is known to be involved in sexual reproduction. However, the genetic characteristics of mating types are not yet clear so far. We developed effective mitochondrion- and nucleus-zoospore fusion systems for the study of genetic control of mating type in Phytophthora capsici. Transfer of A1 mitochondria to A2 zoospores resulted in mitochondrial hybrids capable of producing oospores in single cultures. Asexual progeny from the mitochondria hybrids consisted of both A1 and A2 mating types, indicating mitochondrial gene control of mating type. The genetic analysis using RFLP of mitochondrial DNA showed that the polymorphic fragment of mitochondrial donor was present in mitochondria hybrid confirming the successful transfer of A1 mitochondria to A2 zoospores. The ratio of successful mitochondrial transfer ranged from 0.8 to 1.0% by mitochondrion-zoospore. It is simple and inexpensive in comparison with mitochondrion-protoplast fusion. The method was also used in the intergenus fusions between Peronophythora litchii organelles and Phytophthora capsici zoospores. Our results showed that Pe. litchii has the ability to produce α hormones and stimulate both A1 and A2 types of P. capsici to form oospores. The mitochondrion-zoospore fusion tests showed that the mitochondrial hybrids behaved as homothallic just like Pe. litchii, and the morphology of oospores produced from them was mostly similar to mitochondrial donor Pe. litchii. However, the mating type of nuclear hybrids was the same as P. capsici. These results indicated that mating type genes are encoded in mitochondrial DNA, but not in nuclear DNA in Phytophthora and Peronophythora. Moreover, the heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA) analysis also showed the presence of mtDNA of mitochondrial donor in the mitochondrial hybrid. The study confirms again the previous report of mitochondrial gene control of mating type in Phytophthora, and shows that control of sexual reproduction in Peronophythora is similar to that in Phytophthora. The entire mitochondrial genomes of PcaA1-Cn5 A1 and PcaA1-Cn24 A2 of Phytophthora capsici were sequenced. Two isolates with different mating type were originated from the same parent. The genome sizes were 38417 bp for A1 and 38414 bp for A2. Their A+T contents were 78.2%. The genomes contained 61 genes with known functions and six open reading frames were with unknown functions. The functions of these genes included 18 electron transport proteins, 16 ribosomal proteins, 2 ribosomal RNAs and 25 transfer RNAs. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms were present when genome sequences of A1 and A2 mating type isolates were compared. The results suggest that A1 and A2 mating type genes are located in different mtDNA. Since results from this study show that mating type genes are encoded in mtDNA in Phytophthora, the nine SNPs are apparently involved in the determination of mating types. The mechanism by which these SNPs regulate the mating type remains to be investigated.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/31404
其他識別: U0005-1308201016033200
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-1308201016033200
Appears in Collections:植物病理學系

文件中的檔案:

取得全文請前往華藝線上圖書館



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.