請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/31508
標題: 台灣內寄生食線蟲真菌之鑑定
Identification of Endoparasitic Nematophagous Fungi in Taiwan
作者: 劉珮琬
Liu, Pei-Wan
關鍵字: Nematophagous fungi
食線蟲真菌
endoparasitic
obligate parasite
oomycetes
Lagenidium
內寄生菌
絕對寄生
卵菌
Lagenidium
出版社: 植物病理學系所
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摘要: 食線蟲真菌為可以利用線蟲當作營養來源之真菌,主要分成三大類:捕捉性、內寄生性和伺機性,其中的內寄生性類為絕對寄生菌,僅能以線蟲為唯一之營養來源,在自然環境下,菌絲僅在線蟲體內生長,只有產孢構造如〝產孢梗〞或〝孢子囊之釋放管〞能產生於線蟲體外。卵菌、壺菌、接合菌、不完全菌、擔子菌等皆有線蟲內寄生菌之種類,其中的內寄生卵菌類,是生物多樣性亟待開發的領域,而本研即是以〝線蟲內寄生性卵菌〞之多樣性調查為主。方法為收集台灣各地的土壤,經柏門氏漏斗分離線蟲後,由被感染的蟲體上進行純培養,觀察其於培養基上所產生之形態特徵、孢子囊之產生、以及游走孢子之釋放;並完成柯霍氏法則,以確定其為線蟲之病原菌;更進一步使其在線蟲體內產生孢子囊並釋放游走孢子,以符合其〝內寄生性〞之定義。所有菌種皆完成18S、ITS、28S分子序列之解序,並與基因庫中既有的種類共同構築演化樹,探討形態特性與群屬歸類之關係。研究期間共收集61隻菌株,共19種線蟲寄生菌,其中接合菌、不完全菌、擔子菌各1種,皆為台灣新紀錄種; 1種壺菌;及15種卵菌,卵菌中3種為台灣已記載過之種類但第一次發現寄生在線蟲上,3種為台灣新紀錄種,10種世界新種,皆屬於Lagenidium屬。此類線蟲內寄生之菌種與Pythium屬有極高之親緣關係,相信藉由更多樣之菌種收集,能使Pythium相關屬之分類更加完整。
Nematophagous fungi are characterized by absorbing nutrients from nematodes, and can be grouped into three categories, i.e., predatory, endoparasitic, and opportunistic. The endoparasitic nematophagous fungi are obligate parasites using nematodes as the only source of nutrient without a free-living saprotrophic phase. There is no vegetative mycelium protruding outside the nematode hosts. Only conidiophores and discharge tubes of sporangium emerged from the body of infected and dead nematodes. Endoparasitic nematophagous fungi can be found in the oomycetes, chytridiomycetes, zygomycetes, deuteromycetes, and basidiomycetes. Among them, endoparasitic oomycetes in nematodes are the mostly diverse but undisclosed group which was the main target of this study. Soil samples were collected from various habitats in Taiwan. Baermann funnel technique was used to obtained nematodes, among which nematodes with internal mycelium were picked up for fungal isolation. In pure culture, characters of colony, sporangium, and zoospore discharge for all the isolates were described and illustrated. Koch's postulates were used to ascertain pathogenicity of these isolates. Nematodes were inoculated with acquired isolates, and sporangium and zoospore discharge were induced to occur on nematodes to prove the endoparasitism of these isolates. Molecular analyses of 18S, ITS, 28S DNA sequences were conducted to construct phylogenetic trees in order to clarify the relatedness between groups of oomycetes. There were 61 isolates obtained in this study, and 19 among them were species are identified, including 1 chytridiomycete, 1 zygomycete, 1 deuteromycete, 1 basidiomycete, and 15 oomycetes. Among the oomycetes obtained, 10 are new species and attributed to the genus Lagenidium. It is expected that the classification of the intractable Pythium-related oomycetes can be further clarified after more endoparasitic Pythium-related oomycetes are explored.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/31508
其他識別: U0005-3007201018273100
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