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Bacterial Soft Rot of Colored Calla Lily in Taiwan
|摘要:||彩色海芋於栽培時容易發生細菌性軟腐病，嚴重時發病率可高達50%。自臺中后里、鳥日及苗栗卓蘭等地彩色海芋栽培田中，取回彩色海芋罹病之軟腐組織，共計分離26株Erwinia屬軟腐細菌，經生理生化測定結果，其中19株為Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora （簡稱Ecc），其餘7株為Erwinia chrysanthemi （簡稱Ech），進一步鑑定得悉此7株Ech為Dickey 氏分類體系之subdiisionⅡ，而為Boccara 氏分類體系之biovar 6。致腐能力測試結果顯示由彩色海芋分離所得之Ecc及Ech菌株對彩色海芋種球之致腐能力較其他寄主來源之Ecc菌株為強。測試5種彩色海芋不同栽培品種之種球對Ecc及Ech之感受性，其中以金黃色之Best Gold與橘色之Tango最為感病，而以粉紅色之Little Suzy較不感病。將等量之Ecc及Ech同時接種於彩色海芋種球，在較高的溫度（24∼37°C）時以Ech佔優勢，而Ecc則在較低溫度(16°C) 時佔優勢。又所分離之Ecc與Ech 之大部份菌株對SuSO4. 5H2O之抗性高達500∼600ppm，而對streptomycin sulfate（≧50ppm）則不具抗性，所測試菌株對市售之含銅殺菌劑有明顯之抗性，而含鏈徵素之殺菌劑則可抑制大部份菌株之生長。測試不同來源彩色海芋種球Erwinia屬軟腐細菌帶菌率結果為20∼70%，而種球處理顯示50°C溫水及熱酸性硫酸鋅溶液可降低彩色海芋種球上Erwinia屬軟腐細菌之族群，其中以熱酸性硫酸鋅溶液效果較為顯著。在溫度栽培結果發現。熱酸性硫酸鋅溶液並不會抑制彩色海芋種球的萌芽、株高及開花所需天數。在測試的11種雜草根圈土壤配合增量培養，得悉有5種雜草根圈土可偵測到E. carotovora，而有6種雜草根圈土可偵測到Ech的存在。將甘藍葉之碎片混入滅菌過或未滅菌過之土壤中，都有加速Erwinia屬軟腐族群密度下降之趨勢；而在溫室試驗中，彩色海芋軟腐細菌Ecc在彩色海芋根圈土壤中可維持較長的存活時間。|
Bacterial soft rot of colored calla lily a very serious disese in Taiwan. The disease incidence may reach high to 50%in the field. In the study, a total of 26 strains of soft rot Erwinia were isolated from rotted tissues collected from colcred calla lily grown fields in Houli, Wujih and Cholan. Based on the physiological and biochemical tests, 19 strains were identified as Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, while the other 7 strains were Erwinin chrysanthemi with phenotypic characteristics similar to the strains in the subdivision Ⅱ and biovar 6 according to the Dickey''s and Boccara''s classification systems. The results of maceration tests showed that strains of both of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora and Erwinia chrysanthemi isolated from colored calla lilly were more virulent than strains of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora isolated from other crops on the rhizome slices of colored calla lily. Among 5 cultivars of colored calla lily tested, the cultivars Best Gold and Tango with golden and orange flowers, repectively, were the most susceptible, while little Suzy with pink flowers was the least susceptible, to Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora and Erwinia chrysanthemi. When rhizome slices of colored calla lily were coinoculated with cell suspensions of both E. carotovora subsp. carotovora and E. chrysanthemi in 1:1 ratio,E. chrysanthemi was dominant in the rotted tissues at higher temperature (24~37°C) ,while E. carotovora subsp. carotovora was dominate at lower temperatuer (16°C). In the copper and streptomycin tests, most strains of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora and E.chrysanthemi were resistant to CuSO4. 5H2O at the concerntration of 500∼600 ppm, but were sensitive to streptomycin sulfate (≧50ppm). In addition, most strains were resistant to commercial formulated agrochemicals containing copper, but the growth of most strains was inhibited by the formulated agrochemicals containing streptomycin. Rhizomes of colored calla lily obtained from differeint sources were tested for the percentage of soft rot Erwinia, that results showed that 20∼70% rhizomes were contaminated with soft not Erwinia Treatments of rhizome with 50°C hot water and hot acidified zinc sulfate reduced the popuolation of soft rot Erwinia on the surfae of rhozomes. Howere, it was apparent that the treatment with hot acidified zinc sulfate was more effective. No adverse effects were observed on emergence of rhizomes, plant height and days to flowering when rhizomes of colored calla lily were treated with hot acidified zinc sulfate. Among 11weed species tested, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora was detected in selective CVP medium after enrichment, in rhizosphere soil from 5 weed species, while E. chrysanthemi was detected in 6 weed specties. Addition of cabbage leaf chips to autoclaved or non-autocalved soil accelerated the decline of the population of soft rot Erwinia in soil. In green house test, population of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora surived longer in colored calla lily rhizosphere soil than in non-rhizosphere soil.
|Appears in Collections:||植物病理學系|
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