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Genetic diversity of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli in Taiwan
|關鍵字:||Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli|
|摘要:||由Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli所引起的瓜類細菌性果斑病（Bacterial fruit blotch），自1994年在台灣首次發現後，廣泛蔓延各地，嚴重危害西瓜、洋香瓜及苦瓜之生產。基因體指紋分析法及Biolog系統來分析本病菌來自不同寄主各菌株間之遺傳差異性，以瞭解台灣地區果斑病菌菌株之族群架構及其與國外地區菌株之關係。依RAPD之基因指紋圖譜加以分群分析，可將台灣64個菌株分成R1及R2兩菌群，西瓜來源菌株有22個菌株（88%）被歸類於R1菌群，3個菌株（12%）則被歸類於R2菌群；洋香瓜來源菌株有6個菌株（18.8%）被歸類於R1菌群，26個菌株（81.2%）則被歸類於R2菌群；苦瓜來源6個菌株則均歸類於R2菌群。結合BOX-PCR及ERIC-PCR之圖譜分析結果也可將所有供試台灣菌株分為BE1及BE2兩菌群，西瓜來源菌株有78.9%菌株被歸類於BE1菌群，21.1%菌株則被歸類於BE2菌群；洋香瓜來源菌株有14.8%菌株被歸類於BE1菌群，85.2%菌株則被歸類於BE2菌群；苦瓜來源菌株均歸類於BE2菌群；若將國外9個菌株DNA比較分析，則美國3個西瓜來源菌株、1個南瓜來源菌株及澳洲2個羅馬甜瓜來源菌株均屬於BE2菌群，而美國來源另1個西瓜菌株及2個香櫞樹菌株則自成另一群，BE3菌群。Biolog系統之分析結果，則將所有供試台灣菌株分為三群，B1、B2及B3菌群，西瓜來源菌株有93%菌株被歸類於B1菌群，7%菌株被歸類於B2菌群；洋香瓜來源菌株有8.3%菌株被歸類於B1菌群，91.7%菌株則被歸類於B2菌群；苦瓜來源4個供試菌株中有3個被歸類於B2菌群，而另一菌株則自成另一群，B3菌群。由上述各項結果顯示台灣地區供試菌株分為兩大菌群，一群以西瓜來源菌株為主，一群則以洋香瓜及苦瓜菌株為主；而美國及澳洲的供試菌株則多數與台灣洋香瓜來源的菌株較為相近。接種結果顯示菌株之遺傳分群與其在寄主上之病原性並無相關性。|
Bacterial fruit blotch caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Acc) has been a destructive and widespread disease on watermelon, muskmelon and bitter gourd in Taiwan since first observed in 1994. The genetic diversity of Aac strains from different hosts was studied by using the genomic fingerprinting techniques and Biolog system to understand the population structure of Aac in Taiwan and its relationship with strains from other countries. The cluster analysis based on the amplified DNA profiles by multiplex PCR using selected four random primers revealed two major clusters, R1 and R2, among 64 strains of Aac from Taiwan. The majority (88%) of strains from watermelon and 18.8% of strains from muskmelon were grouped in cluster R1, and 12% of strains from watermelon, majority (81.2%) of strains from muskmelon, and all strains from bitter gourd were in cluster R2. The analysis of combined genomic fingerprints of BOX- and ERIC-PCR also grouped strains from Taiwan into two clusters, BE1 and BE2. The majority (78.9%) of strains from watermelon and 14.8% of strains from muskmelon were in cluster BE1, and 21.1% of strains from watermelon, majority (85.2%) of strains from muskmelon and all strains from bitter gourd were in cluster BE2. When DNAs of nine strains from other countries were compared, three watermelon strains and one pumpkin strain from U.S.A. and two cantaloupe strains from Australia were grouped in cluster BE2, however, one watermelon strain and two citron strains from U.S.A. were distinct and could be grouped into third cluster, BE3. The analysis of the Biolog system revealed three cluster, B1, B2 and B3. The majority (93%) of watermelon strains and 8.3% of muskmelon strains were in cluster B1, and 7% of watermelon strains, majority (91.7%) of muskmelon strains were in cluster B2. Among the four biter gourd strains tested, three were in cluster B2 and one was in cluster B3. The above results showed that Aac strains from Taiwan could be differentiated into two major clusters. Cluster 1 consisted of strains mainly from watermelon and cluster 2 is composed of strains mainly from muskmelon and bitter gourd. Among strains form U.S.A. and Australia tested, most were in cluster 2. The inoculation tests did not show the relationship between the genetic groups and their pathogenicity to the hosts.
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