Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/31914
標題: 台灣中部地區根瘤線蟲族群之鑑定、寄主範圍變異及演化研究
The Identification, Host range variation and Evolution of Root-knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) in the Central region of Taiwan
作者: 吳冠龍
Wu, Guan-long
關鍵字: Evolution
演化
Host range
Identification
Intra-specific variation
Race
Root-knot nematodes
Mitotic parthenogenesis
Meloidogyne incognita
M. javanica.
寄主範圍
鑑定
種內變異
生理小種
根瘤線蟲
有絲分裂孤雌生殖
南方根瘤線蟲
爪哇根瘤線蟲
出版社: 植物病理學系所
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摘要: Root-knot nematodes (RKNs, Meloidogyne spp.) are important plant parasitic nematodes. Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica belong to obligatory mitotic parthenogenesis. The two RKNs have broad host range and can produce large number of infective J2 in fields, causing serious agricultural losses. The identification of RKNs in Taiwan used to rely on the morphology of perineal pattern. Judging the pattern is very subjective, and untypical patterns might lead to misidentification. In this study, morphological, biological, biochemical, and molecular biological methods were employed to identify 4 root-knot nematode populations, SL, YJ, ML and WF, collected from the central Taiwan. From the results of the female perineal patterns, male head shapes, J2 de Man formula, isozyme profiles(Esterase, Malate dehydrogenase, Superoxide dismutase), specific SCAR primers, and mitochondria DNA CoⅡ-lrRNA region HinfⅠdigestion profiles, SL and YJ populations were identified as M. incognita, isolate ML and WF populations were M. javanica. However, intra-specific variations still existed in the male head shapes, isozyme profiles, and mtDNA CoⅡ-lrRNA region HinfⅠdigestion profiles. A total 15 different cultivar crops in 9 different families were inoculated with these 4 RKN populations. The results showed that two different M. javanica, ML and WF, had different host range. The ML population could infect the local bell pepper cultivar and 11 peanut cultivars, but WF could not. The results of North Carolina differential host test showed that ML isolate was M. javanica race 1 and WF isolate was a new race which could not infect Charleston Grey watermelon. So the ML isolate was a local race which can only infect Taiwan peanut cultivars. The 18S rRNA gene, 28S rRNA D2D3 region, 28S rRNA D3 region and mtDNA CoⅡ-lrRNA region sequences of 4 Taiwan RKNs in this study were used to draw phylogenic trees. M. incognita YJ isolate and two M. javanica isolates ML and WF were in different branching with foreign M. incognita and M. javanica in the three phylogenic trees base on 18S rRNA gene. And they were closer to M. enterolobii and M. ethiopica which were species from tropical regions. But the 4 Taiwan RKN populations could separate congruently with their species status in the three mtDNA CoⅡ-lrRNA region phylogenic trees. The two different cladding results of 18S rRNA gene and mtDNA phylogenic trees indicated that the rRNA and mtDNA carried different information in terms of evolution. Four new haplotypes (8, 9, 10, 11) were found in 3 Taiwan RKN populations and branching into an individual clade on the D3 Neighbor-joining trees analyzing with other 5 published D3 haplotypes. According to the identification, biology and molecular evolution results from this study, the 4 RKN populations had evolved to a unique status due to the long-term isolation of Taiwan island.
根瘤線蟲(Meloidogyne spp.)是重要之植物病原線蟲,其中南方根瘤線蟲M. incognita以及爪哇根瘤線蟲M. javanica屬於絕對寄生的有絲分裂孤雌生殖族群,寄主範圍廣且可在田間大量產生二齡幼蟲(J2),造成嚴重農業損失。台灣之根瘤線蟲鑑定仰賴傳統陰門膜紋形態鑑定,但由於其形態經常不典型導致鑑定困難。因此本研究利用形態學、生物學、生物化學、分子生物學的方法針對台灣中部地區採集之四個根瘤線蟲族群SL、YJ、ML、WF進行完整的鑑定。利用雌蟲陰門膜紋、雄蟲頭部形態、二齡幼蟲第曼公式測量值、同功異構酶分析(酯酶、蘋果酸脫氫酶、超氧化歧化酶)、SCAR專一性引子對、粒線體CoⅡ-lrRNA區間HinfⅠ酶切分析進行根瘤線蟲鑑定,鑑定線蟲族群SL、YJ為南方根瘤線蟲,ML、WF則是爪哇根瘤線蟲。然而在形態、同功異構酶以及粒線體CoⅡ-lrRNA區間HinfⅠ酶切分析出現與文獻記錄不同的情形,顯示台灣的根瘤線蟲族群具有種內變異。利用9個植物科共15種作物進行寄主範圍測試,發現兩個爪哇根瘤線蟲ML族群與WF族群具有不同的寄主範圍,ML族群可感染台灣的甜椒及落花生栽培品系,WF族群則無法感染。以北卡羅萊納寄主鑑別植物進行測試,發現ML族群為爪哇根瘤線蟲第1生理小種,不感染落花生及甜椒;而WF族群為全新的生理小種,不感染落花生、甜椒及西瓜。由於ML族群可對於台灣地區的11種落花生栽培品種皆有感染能力,因此確定其為僅能感染台灣落花生栽培品系的地方生理小種。利用18S rRNA、28S rRNA D2D3區間、28S rRNA D3區間以及粒線體DNA CoⅡ-lrRNA區間進行分子演化分析,發現南方根瘤線蟲YJ族群、爪哇根瘤線蟲ML及WF族群在18S rRNA構築的演化樹與國外之南方、爪哇根瘤線蟲落在不同的位置,與熱帶地區的M. enterolobii、M. ethiopica較為接近。然而以粒線體DNA CoⅡ-lrRNA區間所構築的演化樹,台灣的根瘤線蟲族群可正確依型態鑑定結果在演化樹中進行分類,顯示rRNA基因以及粒線體DNA對於有絲分裂孤雌生殖的根瘤線蟲族群而言,在演化上具有不同演化的意義。在28S rRNA D3區間上發現新的haplotype序列8到11,與國外發表之D3 haplotype序列進行系統演化分析構築演化樹,發現台灣地區新發現的haplotype序列在演化上自成一個分類群,並與國外之序列不同。由完整的鑑定以及生物學、分子演化研究,可以確認台灣島嶼上的根瘤線蟲族群可能因島嶼內長期演化,已具有獨特的演化地位。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/31914
其他識別: U0005-2507201217454200
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-2507201217454200
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