Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/31927
標題: 台灣產亞腐霉菌之分類與其生物特性之研究
Classification and Characteristics of Pythiogeton in Taiwan
作者: 黃晉興
Huang, Jin-Hsing
關鍵字: 亞腐霉菌
Pythiogeton spp.
分類
生物特性
分離
培養
產孢
病原性
classification
biological characteristics
isolation
culture
sporulation
pathogenicity.
出版社: 植物病理學系所
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摘要: 亞腐霉菌(Pythiogeton)被認為是稀少、且不易分離之菌,但在調查台灣水田的亞腐霉菌的過程中,發現亞腐霉菌普遍存在於水田中。研究過程共分離獲得 9 種形態不同的亞腐霉菌,其中有6種新種,分別為Pythiogeton abundans、Pythiogeton microzoosporum、Pythiogeton oblongilobum、Pythiogeton paucisporum、Pythiogeton proliferatum、及Pythiogeton puliensis。這些新種中,由核醣體去氧核醣核酸(rDNA)內轉錄間隔區(internal transcribed spacers;ITS)序列親緣分析的結果顯示,所有供試亞腐霉菌菌株自成一支序群,而此支序群夾雜於腐霉菌(Pythium)間,亞腐霉菌支序群內可再細分為多個亞群,每個亞群對應於不同的亞腐霉菌種。利用添加鏈黴素、撲克拉與免賴得800、1與1 ppm 的馬鈴薯葡萄糖瓊脂(modified potato dextrose agar, MPDA)做為分離亞腐霉菌的半選擇性培養基,適合用於分離得到亞腐霉菌,而亞腐霉菌皆可利用固態培養基培養。然而固態培養基並不適合孢囊之產生,但若以10% 離心蔬菜汁(10%CVB)培養後,再以茭白田水置換培養,則皆可產生大量孢囊;將培養皿內產生孢囊之菌絲覆蓋蓋玻片後,可促進所有供試菌株游走子之形成,而孢囊產生與游走子形成之最適溫度皆為24或28℃。所測試的菌株中只有P. ramosum與P. zizaniae 2個種可產生有性繁殖,前者為異絲型,且僅在裸麥瓊脂培養基可產生大量不充滿型(aplerotic)的卵孢子;後者為同絲型,在10% CVB培養則可產生大量充滿型(plerotic)的卵孢子。此2種亞腐霉菌可產生有性繁殖的最適溫度分別為24℃或20℃,而光照會抑制此 2 種亞腐霉菌卵孢子的形成。上述9種亞腐霉菌僅Pythiogeton ramosum及P. zizaniae具有病原性;Pythiogeton ramosum對苗齡3週之茭白幼苗、及苗齡2天以下與苗齡7天但有傷口處理之水稻幼苗有病原性,P. zizaniae對茭白幼苗與成株(需有傷口處理)皆具有病原性。
Pythiogeton is a little-studied genus of pythialean Oomycete. During a survey of paddy field sites in Taiwan Pythiogeton species were actually quite common. A total of nine morphologically distinct Pythiogeton species were identified, six of which are new species. The new species are Pythiogeton abundans, Pythiogeton microzoosporum, Pythiogeton oblongilobum, Pythiogeton paucisporum, Pythiogeton proliferatum, and Pythiogeton puliensis. A phylogenetic analysis based on rDNA-internal transcribed spacers (rDNA-ITS) sequences revealed that all isolates of Pythiogeton formed a highly supported clade nested within Pythium species. Each new Pythiogeton species established on the basis of morphological characters was well-supported as individual subgroups. The modified potato dextrose agar (MPDA) containing PDA supplemented with 800 ppm streptomycin, 1 ppm prochlorate, and 1 ppm benomyl could be used as a semi-selective medium for isolating Pythiogeton. Pythiogeton species could be readily isolated by this medium. All the 9 Pythiogeton species could be cultured on agar media. However, agar media were not adequate for sporangial production. Abundant sporangia could be induced by using 10% clarified V8 juice broth (10%CVB) to cultivate these fungi, and then the broth was replaced by unsterilized field water from water bamboo fields. To promote the production of zoospores, the mycelial mats with sporangia in the petri-dish were covered with a cover slip. The optimal temperature for the production of sporangia and zoospore was 24 or 28℃. Among these 9 Pythiogeton species, only P. ramosum and P. zizaniae could produce sexual structures. The former is heterothallic, and can produce abundant oogonia and aplerotic oospores on rye sucrose agar; the latter is homothallic, and can produce abundant normal oogonia and plerotic oospores on 10%CVB. The optimal temperatures for their production of sexual structures were 24℃ and 20℃ respectively, which was inhibited by light. According to the artificial inoculation test, only P. ramosum and P. zizaniae were pathogenic. P. ramosum was proved to be pathogenic to 3-week-old seedlings of water bamboo, seedlings of rice less than 2-day-old. It could infect 7-day-old seedlings of rice only when the seedlings were wounded. P. zizaniae was pathogenic to water bamboo seedlings, and could infect adult plants after they were wounded.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/31927
其他識別: U0005-2202201318474600
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-2202201318474600
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