Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/31940
標題: 引起台灣番石榴與蓮霧病害Pestalotiopsis屬的生物學特性探討
Biological and molecular characteristics of Pestalotiopsis spp. from guava and wax-apple in Taiwan
作者: 方柏元
Fang, Bo-Yuan
關鍵字: 番石榴瘡痂病
Pestalotiopsis spp.
蓮霧果腐病
Pestalotiopsis spp
分子親緣性分析
guava canker
wax-apple fruit rot
molecular phylogeny
出版社: 植物病理學系所
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摘要: 摘要 台灣屬亞熱帶地區,氣候溫暖潮溼適合多種植物病害的發生,其中擬盤多毛胞屬真菌 (Pestalotiopsis spp.) 可引起多種重要果樹病害,其中以P. psidii所引起的番石榴 (Psidium guajava) 果實瘡痂病與由P. eugeniae所引起的蓮霧 (Syzygium samarangense) 果腐病最重要,然國外報告引起番石榴瘡痂病與蓮霧果腐病之Pestalotiopsis屬病原超過兩種。本研究為釐清引起台灣番石榴瘡痂病與蓮霧果腐病之病原是否為單一或多種的擬盤多毛胞菌,將自各番石榴與蓮霧產地蒐集罹病組織,並針對所分離Pestalotiopsis屬菌株之形態學、病原性、溫度測試、藥劑感受性及分子親緣性進行分析。自番石榴和蓮霧罹病果實共分離到144株,包括番石榴62株 (6株紫色型菌株) 與蓮霧49株 (37株紫色型菌株)。另自番石榴乾腐型病徵果實分離22株、番石榴果柄突起瘡痂病斑分離6株、番石榴罹病葉分離5株等Pestalotiopsis屬菌株。由於分生孢子形態觀顯示,引起台灣番石榴與蓮霧病害之Pestalotiopsis屬病原,於分生孢子形態上無明顯差異,且中間細胞屬雜色型。此外利用主成份分析,亦得知透過分生孢子形態,無法區分來自不同寄主分離或不同病徵型的菌株。病原性測試結果指出,自果實褐斑或紫斑病徵與番石榴乾腐瘡痂病徵果實、果柄、葉片所分離之菌株對兩種果實皆具病原性,且依菌株間不同可於果實上產生褐斑或紫斑型病徵,亦無毒力上之差異。另比較不同接種方法對Pestalotiopsis屬病原感染果實之差異,得知分生孢子懸浮液需於有傷口條件下才能感染果實,而菌絲圓盤接種則不需要傷口即可感染果實。將菌株接種於番石榴切離葉結果指出,褐斑與紫斑型菌株於有傷口條件下可感染番石榴葉片,然無傷口處理之葉片則無法感染。於溫度方面測試顯示,來自番石榴與蓮霧之Pestalotiopsis屬菌株的適合生長與發病溫度介於20-28℃。本研究證實可自健康番石榴果實內分離到具病原性的內生型Pestalotiopsis屬菌株,且亦可引起褐斑與紫斑型病徵。測試Pestalotiopsis屬菌株對4種史托比類殺菌劑之感受性,顯示對百克敏之感受性最高,三氟敏次之,再次之為亞托敏,克收欣感受性最低。於分子親緣性分析中,證實Internal transcribed spacer (ITS)、β-tubulin、Elongation factor 1-α (EF1-α) 等核苷酸序列皆可將來自番石榴與蓮霧的Pestalotiopsis屬的菌株歸為雜色型分生孢子群 (bootstrap值>96)。且將三種序列合併分析後指出,引起台灣番石榴與蓮霧果實病害之Pestalotiopsis屬菌株屬非單一分子系統,而是具有分子多樣與高岐異度。綜合本研究所有結果,顯示引起台灣番石榴與蓮霧果實病害之Pestalotiopsis菌株為複合種群 (species complex),且與寄主專一性無明顯相關。唯引起番石榴或蓮霧果實產生兩型病徵之菌株,無法透過形態學、接種試驗、溫度測試及分子生物學將其區分,未來將進一步分析影響產生兩型病徵之因子。
Abstract Taiwan is located in subtropical area with high temperature and humidity. The diseases of fruit crops caused by Pestalotiopsis spp. are important, including guava canker caused by P. psidii and wax-apple fruit rot caused by P. eugeniae. However, previous studies indicated that more than one species of Pestalotiopsis could cause guava canker or wax-apple fruit rot. The objectives are to collect the Pestalotiopsis isolates from guava and wax-apple and identify the Pestalotiopsis species based on morphological, biological and molecular characteristics. There were 144 Pestalotiopsis isolates collected from guava and wax-apple fruits, including 62 isolates from guava (6 isolates from purple-rot symptom) and 49 isolates from wax-apple (37 isolates from purple-rot symptom). Moreover, 22 isolates from dry canker fruit, 6 isolates from canker stalk and 5 isolates from leaves of guava were obtained. The morphological analysis showed that the conidial morphology of Pestalotiopsis isolates from guava and wax-apple are similar and medium cell of all isolates is versicolorous. Furthermore, the Pestalotiopsis isolates from two hosts also could not be separated into different groups based on principal component analysis. The pathogenicity test showed that Pestalotiopsis isolates from guava and wax-apple fruit with brown or purple type symptom and dry canker fruit, stalk and leaves of guava could infect the both fruits. The inoculation test indicated that the both fruits with wound could be infected by spore suspension of Pestalotiopsis isolates; however, the mycelia disc could infect both fruits without wound. Moreover, the Pestalotiopsis isolates from both fruits with brown or purple symptom could infect the detached leaves of guava successfully under wounded condition. For temperature examination, all of the Pestalotiopsis isolates could grow from 20 to 28℃ and the temperature range was also suitable for disease development on guava and wax-apple. In this study, the endophytic isolates of Pestalotiopsis obtained from healthy guava fruit could cause brown or purple symptom on guava and wax-apple fruits. The fungicide sensitivity of Pestalotiopsis isolates to 4 kinds of strobilurins revealed that the Pestalotiopsis isolates were sensitive to pyraclostrobin but less sensitive to kresoxim-methyl. The result of molecular phylogenic analyses demonstrated that all of the Pestalotiopsis isolates obtained from guava and wax-apple were distinguished from the concolorous isolates of Pestalotiopsis showed based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS), β-tubulin and elongation factor 1-α (EF1-α) sequences. Furthermore, the combination of ITS, β-tubulin and EF1-α sequences showed a similar results with other individual region. In addition, the Pestalotiopsis isolates from guava and wax-apple were not monophylogeny and showed high diversities on ITS, β-tubulin, EF1-α regions and even combination. Thus, the Pestalotiopsis isolates were species complex and more than two or three species of Pestalotiopsis could cause diseases on guava and wax-apple in Taiwan. However, the Pestalotiopsis isolates caused brown and purple symptom on guava and wax-apple could not be distinguished from each other based on morphology, pathogenicity, temperature and molecular phylogeny analyses. It is necessary to reveal the factor that controls the color of symptom in guava and wax-apple fruit in the future.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/31940
其他識別: U0005-0908201314150100
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-0908201314150100
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