Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/31967
標題: 水稻徒長病菌:開發鑑別性培養基、建立病害評估平台及探討土壤接種源之角色
Fusarium fujikuroi:the development of a differential medium, establishment of the disease evaluation system and investigation of the role of soil inoculum
作者: 許晴情
Hsu, Ching-Ching
關鍵字: 水稻徒長病
Bakanae disease
鑑別性培養基
抗感性平台
Fusarium fujikuroi
differential medium
evaluation system
出版社: 植物病理學系所
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摘要: 水稻徒長病菌是最重要的水稻病害之,一直被視為種子傳播病害,並以種子消毒為主要的防治方式,然此病害仍不時在田間普遍發生,顯示對於此病原菌生態及防治仍有許多值得探討的問題,包含稻種帶菌情形、不同水稻品種對徒長病菌的抗感性及土壤接種源在致病能力上所扮演的角色。而期望此問題的釐清將有助於發展適當之防治策略,朝安全農業之目標邁進。所以本研究將以此為主軸進行探討。從病原性測定實驗證實所有的Fusarium fujikuroi之分離株都會造成徒長的病徵,而相似種F. proliferatum、F. verticillioides雖有可能影響幼苗外觀,但皆無稻苗徒長的病徵,因而確認在台灣造成水稻徒長之病原只有F. fujikuroi。為了能夠偵測出稻穀之帶菌情形,開發半選擇性培養基,定名為FFC培養基,其配方為20克 Galactose、2克L-asparagine、1克K2HPO4、 0.5克MgSO4.7H2O、0.5克KCl、0.01克Fe-Na-EDTA、1克 Na2B4O7.10H2O、 20克agar 與1L 水,經高溫高壓滅菌後添加1 ppm cycloheximide、2 ppm大克爛、5 ppm腐絕、10 ppm福多寧、1 ppm依普同、1000 ppm氯化鋰與200 ppm氯黴素。本鑑別性培養基可鑑別出稻種上常見的Fusarium 種類甚至是型態上與F. fujikuroi 無法分辨的F. proliferatum。為了能夠篩選對徒長病菌具抗性之水稻品種,發展出判別水稻品種抗感性之篩檢平台,其操作方式為以高毒力之IL01菌株,在28 °C、濕度90 %下,以1 ×103 spores/mL 孢子懸浮液接種水稻種子,種植於赤玉土上,於接種後21天進行罹病率調查。而為了探討土壤接種源的感染能力,針對不同齡期的水稻進行接種實驗,結果顯示成熟水稻不會受到土壤接種源感染,而田間成熟期水稻的發病,是源自於種子時期的感染。從而可以推論種子時期感染水稻而存活下來的水稻中,病原菌與水稻有不同的交互作用模式;有時病原菌隨著水稻成熟而消退,有時病原菌轉為內生菌型式直到抽穗期再致病。實驗過程中發現到徒長病菌之生態仍有許多未知,包括病菌在植株內能成功纏聚的關鍵因子為何、田間栽植密度是否影響土壤接種源之致病能力等問題有待持續努力來解決。
Bakanae disease is one of the oldest rice diseases, and is endemic in Taiwan for years. Typical symptoms are on the primary leaves with slender, chlorotic and elongated appearances, which is caused by gibberellin produced by the pathogen, Fusarium fujikuroi. Infected plants can be observed on the seedbed and in the field. This pathogen has long been considered to be seed-borne. Therefore, seed sterilization is the major approach to control this disease and has been proved effective. However, this disease still outbreaks from time to time and its occurrence is hardly predictable. There are still problems to be resolved, including (1) an effective method to detect F. fujikuroi on seeds, (2) the susceptibility of different rice varieties against F. fujikuroi, (3) the role of soil inoculum in the pathogenicity. In order to detect F. fujikuroi on seeds, a differential medium, designated as FFC medium, has been developed. FFC medium contains 20g Galactose, 2g L-asparagine, 1g K2HPO4, 0.5 g MgSO4.7H2O, 0.5 g KCl, 0.01 g Fe-Na-EDTA, 1 g Na2B4O7.10H2O, 20 g agar, 1 ppm Cycloheximide, 2 ppm Dichloran, 1 ppm Iprodine, 5 ppm Thiabendazole, 10 ppm Flutolanil, 1000 ppm lithium choloride, 200 ppm chloramphenicol and 1L distilled water. F. fujikuroi and F. proiferatum, the morphologically indistinguishable species, can be separated by FFC medium. F. proiferatum can be inhibited on FFC medium. To evaluate the susceptibility of rice toward F. fujikuroi, a standard screening methods for evaluating susceptibility of rice seedling has been established. High virulent isolate IL01 with the concentration of 1 ×103 spores/mL was inoculated to germinated seeds, which were then incubated at 28oC for 21 days. Susceptibility of rice can be evaluated by disease incidence. To investigate the infection capacity of soil inoculum, different growing stages of rice were inoculated. The results showed that adult rice plant could not be infected through soil inoculum, and infection on seeds could lead to the disease in the adult stage. The more we know about F. fujikuroi, the more questions we have in mind. It is expected that the ecology of F. fujikuroi can be fully understood after our dedication.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/31967
其他識別: U0005-1208201300251400
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