Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
標題: 水稻徒長病菌:開發鑑別性培養基、建立病害評估平台及探討土壤接種源之角色
Fusarium fujikuroi:the development of a differential medium, establishment of the disease evaluation system and investigation of the role of soil inoculum
作者: 許晴情
Hsu, Ching-Ching
關鍵字: 水稻徒長病
Bakanae disease
Fusarium fujikuroi
differential medium
evaluation system
出版社: 植物病理學系所
引用: 林再發。1980。台中秈十號之育成。台中區農業改良場研究彙報。3:1-6。 黑澤英一。1934。稻馬鹿苗病の病徵及病原菌就て。Transaction of the Natural History society of Fomasa. 18: 97. 行政院農業委員會。2011。臺灣地區農產品生產量值。 張義璋。1973。稻苗徒長病菌有性世代及生態之研究。國立中興大學植病研究所第三屆畢業碩士論文。 鄭清煥。2003。作物簡介。植物保護圖鑑系列8─水稻保護,第2-4頁。防檢局。台北。448頁。 孫守恭。1978。稻苗徒長病菌(Gibberella fujikuroi)之生態及生殖。pp.303-317。邱人璋編水稻病蟲害:生態學與流行學。 宇國勝、孫守恭。1977。稻苗徒長病傳染潛勢及發病潛伏期之研究。植保會刊 19:245-250。 宇國勝。1975。影響稻苗徒長病發生因子之研究。國立中興大學植病研究所第五屆畢業碩士論文。 余淑美。1979。不同寄主來源Fusarium moniliforme之生物學比較研究。國立中興大學植病研究所第八屆畢業碩士論文。 Amatulli, M.T., Spadaro, D., Gullino, M.L. and Garibaldi, A. 2010. Molecular identification of Fusarium spp. associated with bakanae disease of rice in Italy and assessment of their pathogenicity. Plant Pathol. 59: 839-844. Amatulli, M.T., Spadaro, D., Gullino, M.L. and Garibaldi, A. 2012. Conventional and real-time PCR for the identification of Fusarium fujikuroi and Fusarium proliferatum from diseased rice tissues and seeds. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 134: 401-408. Andrews, S. and Pitt, J.I. 1986. Selective medium for the isolation of Fusarium species and dematiaceous hypomycetes from cereals. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 51: 1235-1238. Arias, M. 1985. Secretary organelle and mitochondrial alterations induced by fusaric acid in root cells of Zea mays. Physiol. Plant Pathol. 27: 149-158. Booth, C. 1971. The Genus Fusarium. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Eastern Press Limited, Kew Surrey. Bragulat, M.R., Abarca, M.L., Bruguera, M.T. and Cabanes, F.J. 1991. Dyes as fungal inhibitors: effect on colony diameter. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57: 2777-2780. Cao, J.L., Zheng, B., Zhang, S.Y. and Mo, D.X. 1995. The experimental study of moniliformin effects on the chondrocytes. Endemic Dis. Bull. 10: 5-7. Carter, L.L., Leslie, J.F. and Webster, R.K. 2008. Population structure of Fusarium fujikuroi from California rice and water grass. Phytopathology 9: 992-998. Castella, G., Bragulat, M.R., Rubiales, M.V. and Cabanes, F.J. 1997. Malachite green agar, a new selective medium for Fusarium spp. Mycopathologia 137: 173-178. Castella, G., Bragulat, M.R. and Cabanes, F.J. 1999. Surveillance of fumonisins in maize-based feeds and cereals from Spain. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47: 4707-4710. Cumagun, C.J.R., Arcillas, E. and Gergon, E. 2011. UP-PCR analysis of the seedborne pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi causing bakanae disease in rice. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 13: 1029-1032. Desjardins, A.E., Manandhar, H.K., Plattner, R.D., Manandhar, G.G., Poling, S.M. and Maragos, C.M. 2000. Fusarium species from Nepalese rice and production of mycotoxins and gibberellic acid by selected species. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 1020-1025. Gelderblom, W.C.A., Jaskiewicz, K., Marasas, W.F.O., Thiel, P.G., Horak, R.M., Vleggarr, R. and Kriek, N.P.J. 1988. Fumonisins-novel mycotoxins with cancer-promoting activity produced by Fusarium moniliforme. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54: 1806-1811. Geiser, D.M., Jimenez-Gasco, M.M., Kang, S., Makalowska, I., Veeraraghavan, N., Ward, T.J., Zhang, N., Kuldau, G.A. and O’Donnell, K. 2004. FUSARIUM-ID v.1.0: a DNA sequence database for identifying Fusarium. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 110: 473-479. Ghazanfar, M.U., Javed, N., Wakil, W. and Iqbal, M. 2013. Screening of some fine and coarse rice varieties against bakanae disease. J. Agric. Res. 51: 41-49. Huang, T.C. and Chu, S.C. 2009. The occurrence and control of rice bakanae disease in Taiwan. pp. 29-43. In: Proceedings of Symposium on Achievements and Perspectives of Rice Protection in Taiwan. 160 pp. Hsuan, H.M., Salleh, B. and Zakaria, L. 2011. Molecular identification of Fusarium species in Gibberella fujikuroi species complex from rice, sugarcane and maize from Peninsular Malaysia. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12: 6722-6732. Harrison, L.R., Colvin, B.M., Greene, J.T., Newman, L.E. and Cole, J.R. 1990. Pulmonary edema and hydrothorax in swine produced by fumonisin B1, a toxic metabolite of Fusarium moniliforme. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 2: 217-221. Hossain, M. 2004. Long-term prospects for the global rice economy. FAO rice conference. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 1987. IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risks to humans. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity: An Updating of IARC Monographs Volumes 1 to 42. Suppl. 7, p. 71. Lyon: IARC. Joffe, A.Z. 1963. The mycoflora of a continuously cropped soil in Israel, with special reference to effects of manuring and fertilizing. Mycologia 55: 271-282. John, T. 1971. Plant pathological methods. Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University Press. Kato, A., Miyake, T., Nishigata, K., Tateishi, H., Teraoka, T. and Arie, T. 2012. Use of fluorescent proteins to visualize interactions between the bakanae disease pathogen Gibberella fujikuroi and the biocontrol agent Talaromyces sp. KNB-422. J. Gen. Plant Pathol. 78: 54-61. King, A.D., Hocking, A.D. and Pitt, J.I. 1979. Dichloran rose-bengal medium for enumeration and isolation of molds from foods. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 37: 959-964. Komada, H. 1975. Development of a selective medium for quantitative isolation of Fusarium oxysporum from natural soils. Rev. Plant Prot. Res. 8: 114-125 Lee, Y.H., Lee, M.J., Choi, H.W., Kim, S.T., Park, J.W., Myung, I.S., Park, K.and Lee, S.W. 2012. Development of in vitro seedling screening method for selection of resistant rice against bakanae disease. Res. Plant Dis. 17: 288-294. Leslie, J.F. and Summerell, B.A. 2005. The Fusarium laboratory manual. Blackwell Publishing: Ames, USA.400pp. Logrieco, A., Doko, B., Moretti, A., Frisullo, S. and Visconti, A. 1998. Occurrence of fumonisin B1 and B2 in Fusarium proliferatum infected asparagus plants. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46: 5201-6204 Malonek, S., Bomke, C., Bornberg-Bauer, E., Rojas, M.C., Hedden, P., Hopkins, P. and Tudzynski, B. 2005a. Distribution of gibberellin biosynthetic genes and gibberellin production in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex. Phytochemistry 66: 1296-1311. Malonek, S., Rojas, M.C., Hedden, P., Gaskin, P., Hopkins, P. and Tudzynski, B. 2005b. Functional characterization of two cytochrome P450 monooxygenase genes, P450-1 and P450-4, of the gibberellic acid gene cluster in Fusarium proliferatum (Gibberella fujikuroi MP-D). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71: 1462-1472. Marre, M.T., Vergani, P. and Albergoni, F.G. 1993. Relationship between fusaric acid uptake and its binding to cell structures by leaves of Egeria densa and its toxic effects on membrane permeability and respiration. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 42: 141-157. Mathur, S.B. and Kongdal, O. 2003. Common laboratory seed health testing methods for detecting fungi, International Seed Testing Association. Mew, T.W. and Gonzales, P. 2002. A handbook of rice seedborne fungi. International Rice Research Institute, Los Ba˜nos, Philippines, and Science Publishers, Inc., Enfield, New Hampshire, USA. p.83. Nur Ain Izzati, M.Z., Razak, A.A. and Salleh, B. 2008. Bakanae disease of rice in Malaysia and Indonesia: Etiology of the causal agent based on morphological, physiological and pathogenicity characteristics. J. Plant Prot. Res. 48: 476-485. Nelson, P.E., Toussoun, T.A. and Marasas, W.F.O. 1983. Fusarium species: an illustrated manual for identification. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. Nash, S.M. and Snyder, W.C. 1962. Quantitative estimations by plate counts of propagules of the bean root rot Fusarium spp. in field soils. Phytopathology 52: 567-72. O’Donnell, K. 2000. Molecular phylogeny of the Nectria haematococca-Fusarium solani species complex. Mycologia 2: 919-938. O’Donnell, K. and Cigelnik, E. 1997. Two divergent intragenomic rDNA ITS2 types within a monophyletic lineage of the fungus Fusarium are nonorthologous. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 7: 103-116. Ou, S.H. 1984. Rice Diseases. 2nd ed. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey, England. p.262-272. Pavlovkin, J. 1998. Effect of fusaric acid on the electrical properties of maize root hairs plasmalemma. Agriculture 44: 350-355. Phinney, B.O. 1983. The history of gibberellins. In: Crozier A (ed) The biochemistry and physiology of gibberellins. Praeger, New York, USA. Rossi, V., Scandolara, A. and Battilani, P. 2009. Effect of environmental conditions on spore production by Fusarium verticillioides, the causal agent of maize ear rot. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 123: 159-169. Seifert, K.A., Takayuki, A., Baayen, R.P., Brayford, D., Burgess, L.W., Chulze, S., Gams, W., Geiser, D., de Gruyter, J., Leslie, J.F., Logrieco, A., Marasas, W.F.O., Nirenberg, H.I., O’Donnell, K., Rheeder, J., Samuels, G.J., Summerell, A., Thrane, U. and Waalwijk, C. 2003. The name Fusarium moniliforme should no longer be used. Mycol. Res. 107: 643-644. Shu, C.P. 2000. Detection, survival and control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lilii, the causal agent of Fusarium wilt of lily. Master thesis. Department of Plant Pathology, National Chung Hsing University. 87 pp. Snyder, W.C. and Hansen, H.N. 1945. The species concept in Fusarium with reference to discolor and other sections. Am. J. Bot. 32: 657-666. Sweet, D.V. 1986. Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Cincinatti, Ohio, USA. Thrane, U., Filtenborg, O., Frisvad, J.C. and Lund, F. 1992. Improved methods for detection and identification of toxigenic Fusarium species. In Modern Methods in Food Mycology ed. Samson, R.A., Hocking, A.D., Pitt, J.I. and King, A.D. pp. 285-291. Elsevier , Amsterdam. Tio, M., Burgess, L.W., Nelson, P.E. and Toussoun, T.A. 1977. Technique for the isolation, culture and preservation of the fusaria. Australas. Plant Pathol. 6: 11-13. Tsao, P.H. 1970. Selective media for isolation of pathogenic fungi. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 8: 157-186. U.S. EPA-OPP United States Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Pesticide Programs (2008) List of Chemicals Evaluated for Carcinogenic Potential. Available at: Accessed 11 June 2013. Vaidya, R.J., Macmil, S.L., Vyas, P.R., Ghetiya, L.V., Thakor, K.J. and Chhatpar, H.S. 2003. Biological control of Fusarium wilt of pigeonpea Cajanus cajan (L.) millsp with chitinolytic Alcaligenes xylosoxydans. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 41: 1469-1472. Van Wyk, P.S., Scholtz, D.J. and Los, O. 1986. A selective medium for the isolation of Fusarium spp. from soil debris. Phytophylactica 18: 67-69. Vujanovic, V., Hamel, C., Jabaji-Hare, S. and St-Arnaud, M. 2002. Development of a selective Mycobutanil Agar (MBA) medium for the isolation of Fusarium species from asparagus fields. Can. J. Microbiol. 48: 841-847. Waalwijk, C., Baayen R.P., de Koning, J.R.A. and Gams, W. 1996. Discordant groupings of Fusarium spp. from Sections Elegans, Liseola and Dlaminia based on ribosomal ITS1 and ITS2 sequences. Mycologia 88: 361-368. Wildman, H.G. 1991. LiCl as a selective inhibitor of Trichoderma species on soil isolation plates. Mycol. Res. 95: 1364-1368. Williams, L.D., Glenn, A.E., Zimeri, A.M., Bacon, C.W., Smith, M.A. and Riley, R.T. 2007. Fumonisin disruption of ceramide biosynthesis in maize roots and the effects on plant development and Fusarium verticillioides-induced seeding disease. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55: 2937-2946. Wollenweber, H.W. and Reinking, O.A. 1935. Die Fusarien, ihre Beschreibung, Schadwirkung und Bekampfung. Paul Parey, Berlin. Wong, W.C. 1988. A differential medium for the identification of races 1 and 4 of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 6: 51-54. Wulff, E.G., Sorensen, J.S., Lubeck, M., Nielsen, K.F., Thrane, U. and Torp, J. 2010. Fusarium spp. associated with rice bakanae: ecology, genetic diversity, pathogenicity and toxigenicity. Environ. Microbiol. 12: 649-657. Yabuta, T., Kobe, K. and Hayashi, T. 1934. Biochemical studies of the bakanae fungus of rice. I. fusarinic acid, a new product of the bakanae fungus. J. Agric.Chem. Soc. Jpn. 10: 1059-1068. Yazar, S. and Omurtag, G.Z. 2008. Fumonisins, trichothecenes and zearalenone in cereals. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 9: 2062-2090. Young, N.A., Kwon-Chung, K.J., Kubota, T.T., Jennings, A.E. and Fisher, R.I. 1978. Disseminated infection by Fusarium moniliforme during treatment for malignant lymphoma. J. Clin. Microbiol. 7: 589-594. Yoshida, S. 1981. Fundamentals of rice crop science. IRRI. Los Banos, Philippines. 269p. Zhao, X.J. 2002. The progress in research of moniliformin. Prog. Vet. Med. 23: 19-22.  
摘要: 水稻徒長病菌是最重要的水稻病害之,一直被視為種子傳播病害,並以種子消毒為主要的防治方式,然此病害仍不時在田間普遍發生,顯示對於此病原菌生態及防治仍有許多值得探討的問題,包含稻種帶菌情形、不同水稻品種對徒長病菌的抗感性及土壤接種源在致病能力上所扮演的角色。而期望此問題的釐清將有助於發展適當之防治策略,朝安全農業之目標邁進。所以本研究將以此為主軸進行探討。從病原性測定實驗證實所有的Fusarium fujikuroi之分離株都會造成徒長的病徵,而相似種F. proliferatum、F. verticillioides雖有可能影響幼苗外觀,但皆無稻苗徒長的病徵,因而確認在台灣造成水稻徒長之病原只有F. fujikuroi。為了能夠偵測出稻穀之帶菌情形,開發半選擇性培養基,定名為FFC培養基,其配方為20克 Galactose、2克L-asparagine、1克K2HPO4、 0.5克MgSO4.7H2O、0.5克KCl、0.01克Fe-Na-EDTA、1克 Na2B4O7.10H2O、 20克agar 與1L 水,經高溫高壓滅菌後添加1 ppm cycloheximide、2 ppm大克爛、5 ppm腐絕、10 ppm福多寧、1 ppm依普同、1000 ppm氯化鋰與200 ppm氯黴素。本鑑別性培養基可鑑別出稻種上常見的Fusarium 種類甚至是型態上與F. fujikuroi 無法分辨的F. proliferatum。為了能夠篩選對徒長病菌具抗性之水稻品種,發展出判別水稻品種抗感性之篩檢平台,其操作方式為以高毒力之IL01菌株,在28 °C、濕度90 %下,以1 ×103 spores/mL 孢子懸浮液接種水稻種子,種植於赤玉土上,於接種後21天進行罹病率調查。而為了探討土壤接種源的感染能力,針對不同齡期的水稻進行接種實驗,結果顯示成熟水稻不會受到土壤接種源感染,而田間成熟期水稻的發病,是源自於種子時期的感染。從而可以推論種子時期感染水稻而存活下來的水稻中,病原菌與水稻有不同的交互作用模式;有時病原菌隨著水稻成熟而消退,有時病原菌轉為內生菌型式直到抽穗期再致病。實驗過程中發現到徒長病菌之生態仍有許多未知,包括病菌在植株內能成功纏聚的關鍵因子為何、田間栽植密度是否影響土壤接種源之致病能力等問題有待持續努力來解決。
Bakanae disease is one of the oldest rice diseases, and is endemic in Taiwan for years. Typical symptoms are on the primary leaves with slender, chlorotic and elongated appearances, which is caused by gibberellin produced by the pathogen, Fusarium fujikuroi. Infected plants can be observed on the seedbed and in the field. This pathogen has long been considered to be seed-borne. Therefore, seed sterilization is the major approach to control this disease and has been proved effective. However, this disease still outbreaks from time to time and its occurrence is hardly predictable. There are still problems to be resolved, including (1) an effective method to detect F. fujikuroi on seeds, (2) the susceptibility of different rice varieties against F. fujikuroi, (3) the role of soil inoculum in the pathogenicity. In order to detect F. fujikuroi on seeds, a differential medium, designated as FFC medium, has been developed. FFC medium contains 20g Galactose, 2g L-asparagine, 1g K2HPO4, 0.5 g MgSO4.7H2O, 0.5 g KCl, 0.01 g Fe-Na-EDTA, 1 g Na2B4O7.10H2O, 20 g agar, 1 ppm Cycloheximide, 2 ppm Dichloran, 1 ppm Iprodine, 5 ppm Thiabendazole, 10 ppm Flutolanil, 1000 ppm lithium choloride, 200 ppm chloramphenicol and 1L distilled water. F. fujikuroi and F. proiferatum, the morphologically indistinguishable species, can be separated by FFC medium. F. proiferatum can be inhibited on FFC medium. To evaluate the susceptibility of rice toward F. fujikuroi, a standard screening methods for evaluating susceptibility of rice seedling has been established. High virulent isolate IL01 with the concentration of 1 ×103 spores/mL was inoculated to germinated seeds, which were then incubated at 28oC for 21 days. Susceptibility of rice can be evaluated by disease incidence. To investigate the infection capacity of soil inoculum, different growing stages of rice were inoculated. The results showed that adult rice plant could not be infected through soil inoculum, and infection on seeds could lead to the disease in the adult stage. The more we know about F. fujikuroi, the more questions we have in mind. It is expected that the ecology of F. fujikuroi can be fully understood after our dedication.
其他識別: U0005-1208201300251400
Appears in Collections:植物病理學系



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.