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Evaluation of Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometer (SEM-EDX) for Detection of Heavy Metals in Himematsutake
scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX)
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Himematsutake (Agaricus blazei Murill) is a popular edible mushroom in the world. Recently, the over accumulation of heavy metals in the himematsutake had been paid attention in Taiwan. Several methods can be used to detect the accumulation of heavy metals in biological materials; however, these methods are time consuming. For detecting the heavy metals and its distribution in fruit body of himematsutake rapidly, the scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX) was used to analyze eight heavy metals of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg and Pb in pileus and stipe of fruiting body by pieced and powdery types. Moreover, the atomic percentage of these heavy metals in pileus and stipe were be confirmed by ICP-MS. In this study, the specimens of himematsutake were collected from Taichung (USA and Japanese strain), Changhua (Japanese and Taiwanese strain), Nantou and China. The results of pieced analysis showed that the accumulation of Ni (0.040%) and As (0.009%) in pileus of fruiting body of USA strain from Taichung were significantly higher than in stipe; however, the accumulation of Hg (0.044%) and Pb (0.043%) in stipe of fruiting body of USA strain were significantly higher than pileus. The other side, the accumulation of As (0.008%) in pileus of fruiting body of Japanese strain from Taichung was significantly higher than in stipe; meanwhile, the accumulation of Ni (0.015%), Cu (0.054%), Zn (0.017%), Hg (0.034%)and Pb (0.030%) in stipe of fruiting body of Japanese strain were significantly higher than pileus. The pieced analysis of Japanese strain from Changhua indicated that Cu (0.044%), Hg (0.092%) and Pb (0.069%) in pileus were significantly higher than in stipe, and As (0.013%) and Cd (0.015%) in stipe were significantly higher than in pileus. However, the pieced analysis of Taiwanese strain from Changhua revealed that Ni (0.023%), Cu (0.041%), Zn (0.024%), As (0.013%) and Hg (0.114%) in pileus were significantly higher than in stipe. The pieced analysis of himematsutake from Natou showed that accumulation of Hg (0.088%) in pileus was significantly higher than in stipe, and the accumulation of Ni (0.029%), Cu (0.060%), Zn (0.030%) and Cd (0.025%) in stipe were significantly higher than in pileus. The pieced analysis of himematsutake from China indicated that accumulation of As (0.015%) and Hg (0.067%) in pilues were significantly higher than in stipe, and Cr (0.017%), Ni (0.023%), Cu (0.048%), Cd (0.015%) and Pb (0.052%) in stipe were significantly higher than in pileus. The results of powdery analysis showed that the accumulation of Cu (0.149%), Zn (0.059%), Hg (0.127%) and Pb (0.076%) in pileus of fruiting body of USA strain from Taichung were significantly higher than in stipe; however, the accumulation of As (0.016%), Hg (0.102%) and Pb (0.065%) in pileus of fruiting body of Japanese strain was significantly higher than in stipe. The powdery analysis of Japanese strain from Changhua indicated that Hg (0.087%) in pileus was significantly higher than in stipe, and As (0.050%) in stipe was significantly higher than in pileus. However, the powdery analysis of Taiwanese strain from Changhua revealed that Ni (0.040%), Hg (0.148%) and Pb (0.095%) in pileus were significantly higher than in stipe, and the accumulations of Cr (0.023%) and Cd (0.037%) in stipe were significantly higher than in pileus. The powdery analysis of himematsutake from Natou showed that accumulation of Pb (0.061%) in pileus wa significantly higher than in stipe. The powdery analysis of himematsutake from China indicated that accumulation of As (0.021%), Hg (0.101%) and Pb (0.076%) in pilues were significantly higher than in stipe. For ICP-MS analysis, 0.25 g of pileus and stipe of fruiting body were used for analysis. The results showed that the concentration of Cu (52.263 mg/kg), Zn (164.820 mg/kg), As (1.440 mg/kg), Cd (6.158 mg/kg) and Hg (0.178 mg/kg) in pileus of fruiting body of USA strain from Taichung were significantly higher than in stipe; however, the concentration of Cu (71.975 mg/kg), As (0.450 mg/kg) and Pb (0.260 mg/kg) in pileus of fruiting body of Japanese strain were significantly higher than in stipe. The Japanese strain from Changhua indicated that the concentration of Cu (647.847 mg/kg), Zn (121.450 mg/kg), As (2.270 mg/kg) and Hg (0.130 mg/kg) in pileus were significantly higher than in stipe; meanwhile, the is of Taiwanese strain showed that the concentration of Cu (78.553 mg/kg), Zn (214.230 mg/kg), As (1.418 mg/kg), Cd (19.530 mg/kg) and Hg (0.125 mg/kg) in pileus were significantly higher than in stipe. The analysis of himematsutake from Natou did not show significantly different between pileus and stipe of fruiting bodies. The analysis of himematsutake from China indicated that concentration of Cu (53.460 mg/kg) and Zn (124.310 mg/kg) in pilues were significantly higher than in stipe. For comparing the accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in basidiospore, pilues and stipe, the powdery analysis and ICP-MS analysis were be done. The powdery analysis showed that the heavy metals could be accumulated in basidiospores with lower atomic percentage than in pilues or stipe. Specially, Zn, Hg, and Pb were significantly different among basidiospores, pilues and stipe. Moreover, the sawdust analysis showed that the accumulations of certain heavy metals in fruiting bodies were higher than in sadust. The atomic percentage and concentration of Cu were higher in fruiting bodies than in sawdust. In this study, the analyses results from EDX were compared with the results from ICP-MS. According to correlation analysis, the atomic percentage of As, Cd and Hg based on pieced analysis have positive relationship with the ICP-MS analysis, and the coefficient of As, Cd and Hg were 0.841, 0.672 and 0.497, respectively. The other sides, the atomic percentage of Zn, As, Cd and Pb based on powdery analysis have positive relationship with the ICP-MS analysis, and the coefficient of Zn, As, Cd and Pb were 0.039, 0.277, 0.037 and 0.080. Based on the results, the EDX has potential to detect the eight heavy metals in himematsutake rapidly, and the powdery analysis might better than pieced analysis.
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