Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/31994
標題: 評估掃描式電子顯微鏡-X光能量散佈分析儀(SEM-EDX)於檢測巴西蘑菇中重金屬累積之應用
Evaluation of Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometer (SEM-EDX) for Detection of Heavy Metals in Himematsutake
作者: 劉俊延
Liu, Chen-Yen
關鍵字: 巴西蘑菇
Himematsutake
掃描式電子顯微鏡-X光能量散佈分析儀(SEM-EDX)
重金屬
分佈
生物累積
scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX)
heavy metals
distribution
bioaccumulation
出版社: 植物病理學系所
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摘要: 巴西蘑菇(Agaricus blazei Murill)是世界上廣受歡迎的食用菇類,然近年來在台灣常發生受重金屬污染之問題。目前有多種元素分析方法可以分析重金屬累積的情形,但這些方法在分析過程中相當耗時,為能快速分析菇體內重金屬,本研究探討利用掃描式電子顯微鏡-X光能量散佈分析儀(SEM-EDX)分析巴西蘑菇中鉻、鎳、銅、鋅、砷、鎘、汞及鉛等重金屬含量,並與常用感應耦合電將質譜儀(ICP-MS)方法比較兩者在分析上的差異。將蒐集自台中、彰化、南投及中國大陸等地之巴西蘑菇乾燥子實體,依菌傘和菌柄分別分析8種重金屬含量。本研究將子實體以切取組織塊和研磨成粉末狀態分析8種重金屬含量,結果顯示,來自台中美國種組織塊內的鎳、砷、汞及鉛原子含量百分比在菌傘與菌柄間分布有差異,其中鎳與砷於菌傘內累積量較高,分別為0.040%與0.009%,汞與鉛於菌柄內累積量較高,分別為0.044%與0.043%;而來自日本種組織塊內的鎳、銅、鋅、砷、汞及鉛之原子含量百分比,則在菌傘與菌柄間分布有差異,其中砷於菌傘內累積量較高,為0.008%,鎳、銅、鋅、汞及鉛於菌柄內累積量較高,分別為0.015、0.051、0.017、0.034及0.030%。自彰化蒐集之日本種組織塊內的銅、砷、鎘、汞及鉛原子含量百分比在菌傘與菌柄間分布有差異,其中銅、汞及鉛於菌傘內累積量較高,分別為0.044、0.092及0.069%,砷與鎘於菌柄內累積量較高,分別為0.013與0.015%;而台灣種組織塊內的鎳、銅、鋅、砷與汞之原子含量百分比,則在菌傘與菌柄間分布有差異,且於菌傘內累積量較高,分別為0.023、0.041、0.024、0.013及0.114%。自南投蒐集樣本中,組織塊內的鎳、銅、鋅、鎘及汞原子含量百分比在菌傘與菌柄間分布有差異,其中汞於菌傘內累積量較高,為0.088%,鎳、銅、鋅及鎘於菌柄內累積量較高,分別為0.029、0.060、0.030及0.025%。自中國蒐集樣本中,組織塊內的鉻、鎳、銅、砷、鎘、汞及鉛原子含量百分比在菌傘與菌柄間分布有差異,其中砷與汞於菌傘內累積量較高,分別為0.015與0.067%,鉻、鎳、銅、鎘及鉛於菌柄內累積量多,分別為0.017、0.023、0.048、0.015及0.052%。自台中蒐集之美國種粉末內的銅、鋅、汞及鉛原子含量百分比在菌傘與菌柄間分布有差異且菌傘內累積量較高,分別為0.149、0.059、0.127及0.076%;而日本種粉末內的砷、汞及鉛之原子含量百分比在菌傘與菌柄間分布有差異,且於菌傘內累積量較高,分別為0.016、0.102及0.065%。彰化蒐集之日本種粉末內的砷與汞原子含量百分比在菌傘與菌柄間分布有差異,其中汞於菌傘內累積量較高,為0.087%,砷於菌柄內累積量較高,為0.050%;而台灣種粉末內的鉻、鎳、鎘、汞及鉛原子含量百分比,則在菌傘與菌柄間分布有差異,其中鎳、汞及鉛於菌傘內累積量較高,分別為0.040、0.148及0.095%,鉻與鎘於菌柄內累積量較高,分別為0.023%與0.037%。南投蒐集樣本中,粉末內的鉛原子含量百分比在菌傘與菌柄間分布有差異,且菌傘內累積量較高,為0.061%。中國蒐集樣本中,粉末內的砷、汞及鉛原子含量百分比在菌傘與菌柄間分布有差異,且菌傘內累積量較高,分別為0.021、0.101及0.076%。另利用ICP-MS分析上述樣品,得知大多數樣本的菌傘內均可測得較高重金屬濃度。自台中蒐集之美國種內所含銅、鋅、砷、鎘及汞的含量在菌傘與菌柄間分布有差異,且於菌傘內累積量較高,分別為52.263、164.820、1.440、6.158及0.178 mg/kg;而日本種內所含銅、砷及鉛的含量在菌傘與菌柄間分布有差異,且於菌傘內累積量較高,分別為71.957、0.450及0.260 mg/kg。於彰化蒐集之日本種內所含銅、鋅、砷及汞的含量在菌傘與菌柄間分布有差異,且於菌傘內累積量較高,分別為647.847、121.450、2.270及0.130 mg/kg;而台灣種內所含銅、鋅、砷、鎘與汞的含量在菌傘與菌柄間分布有差異,且於菌傘內累積量較高,分別為78.553、214.230、1.418、19.530與0.125 mg/kg。本研究指出來自南投的樣本中,8種重金屬在菌傘與菌柄間的分布不顯著差異。另蒐集自中國的樣本中,銅與鋅的含量在菌傘與菌柄間分布有差異,且於菌傘內累積量較高,分別為53.460與124.310 mg/kg。本研究分析木屑栽培介質、擔孢子及其著生之子實體內重金屬分布情形,EDX分析顯示,擔孢子內重金屬累積的情形較子實體少,其中鋅、汞及鉛原子含量百分比在擔孢子、菌傘及菌柄間有顯著差異;而EDX和ICP-MS分析子實體與木屑結果,則顯示部分重金屬在子實體內含量比木屑內高,其中銅於子實體內含量比木屑較高。另一方面,將兩分析所得到數據與ICP-MS結果做相關性分析(correlation analysis),得知以EDX分析組織塊所得砷、鎘及汞原子含量百分比與以ICP-MS分析所得含量有正相關性,其相關係數分別為0.841、0.672及0.497,而以EDX分析粉末所得鋅、砷、鎘及鉛原子含量百分比與以ICP-MS分析所得含量亦有正相關性,其相關係數分別為0.039、0.277、0.037及0.080。由以上結果得知,EDX具有被應用於快速偵測巴西蘑菇內鉻、鎳、銅、鋅、砷、鎘、汞與鉛等重金屬元素之潛力,且粉末化的製備可得到與ICP-MS分析結果相似的重金屬分布。
Himematsutake (Agaricus blazei Murill) is a popular edible mushroom in the world. Recently, the over accumulation of heavy metals in the himematsutake had been paid attention in Taiwan. Several methods can be used to detect the accumulation of heavy metals in biological materials; however, these methods are time consuming. For detecting the heavy metals and its distribution in fruit body of himematsutake rapidly, the scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX) was used to analyze eight heavy metals of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg and Pb in pileus and stipe of fruiting body by pieced and powdery types. Moreover, the atomic percentage of these heavy metals in pileus and stipe were be confirmed by ICP-MS. In this study, the specimens of himematsutake were collected from Taichung (USA and Japanese strain), Changhua (Japanese and Taiwanese strain), Nantou and China. The results of pieced analysis showed that the accumulation of Ni (0.040%) and As (0.009%) in pileus of fruiting body of USA strain from Taichung were significantly higher than in stipe; however, the accumulation of Hg (0.044%) and Pb (0.043%) in stipe of fruiting body of USA strain were significantly higher than pileus. The other side, the accumulation of As (0.008%) in pileus of fruiting body of Japanese strain from Taichung was significantly higher than in stipe; meanwhile, the accumulation of Ni (0.015%), Cu (0.054%), Zn (0.017%), Hg (0.034%)and Pb (0.030%) in stipe of fruiting body of Japanese strain were significantly higher than pileus. The pieced analysis of Japanese strain from Changhua indicated that Cu (0.044%), Hg (0.092%) and Pb (0.069%) in pileus were significantly higher than in stipe, and As (0.013%) and Cd (0.015%) in stipe were significantly higher than in pileus. However, the pieced analysis of Taiwanese strain from Changhua revealed that Ni (0.023%), Cu (0.041%), Zn (0.024%), As (0.013%) and Hg (0.114%) in pileus were significantly higher than in stipe. The pieced analysis of himematsutake from Natou showed that accumulation of Hg (0.088%) in pileus was significantly higher than in stipe, and the accumulation of Ni (0.029%), Cu (0.060%), Zn (0.030%) and Cd (0.025%) in stipe were significantly higher than in pileus. The pieced analysis of himematsutake from China indicated that accumulation of As (0.015%) and Hg (0.067%) in pilues were significantly higher than in stipe, and Cr (0.017%), Ni (0.023%), Cu (0.048%), Cd (0.015%) and Pb (0.052%) in stipe were significantly higher than in pileus. The results of powdery analysis showed that the accumulation of Cu (0.149%), Zn (0.059%), Hg (0.127%) and Pb (0.076%) in pileus of fruiting body of USA strain from Taichung were significantly higher than in stipe; however, the accumulation of As (0.016%), Hg (0.102%) and Pb (0.065%) in pileus of fruiting body of Japanese strain was significantly higher than in stipe. The powdery analysis of Japanese strain from Changhua indicated that Hg (0.087%) in pileus was significantly higher than in stipe, and As (0.050%) in stipe was significantly higher than in pileus. However, the powdery analysis of Taiwanese strain from Changhua revealed that Ni (0.040%), Hg (0.148%) and Pb (0.095%) in pileus were significantly higher than in stipe, and the accumulations of Cr (0.023%) and Cd (0.037%) in stipe were significantly higher than in pileus. The powdery analysis of himematsutake from Natou showed that accumulation of Pb (0.061%) in pileus wa significantly higher than in stipe. The powdery analysis of himematsutake from China indicated that accumulation of As (0.021%), Hg (0.101%) and Pb (0.076%) in pilues were significantly higher than in stipe. For ICP-MS analysis, 0.25 g of pileus and stipe of fruiting body were used for analysis. The results showed that the concentration of Cu (52.263 mg/kg), Zn (164.820 mg/kg), As (1.440 mg/kg), Cd (6.158 mg/kg) and Hg (0.178 mg/kg) in pileus of fruiting body of USA strain from Taichung were significantly higher than in stipe; however, the concentration of Cu (71.975 mg/kg), As (0.450 mg/kg) and Pb (0.260 mg/kg) in pileus of fruiting body of Japanese strain were significantly higher than in stipe. The Japanese strain from Changhua indicated that the concentration of Cu (647.847 mg/kg), Zn (121.450 mg/kg), As (2.270 mg/kg) and Hg (0.130 mg/kg) in pileus were significantly higher than in stipe; meanwhile, the is of Taiwanese strain showed that the concentration of Cu (78.553 mg/kg), Zn (214.230 mg/kg), As (1.418 mg/kg), Cd (19.530 mg/kg) and Hg (0.125 mg/kg) in pileus were significantly higher than in stipe. The analysis of himematsutake from Natou did not show significantly different between pileus and stipe of fruiting bodies. The analysis of himematsutake from China indicated that concentration of Cu (53.460 mg/kg) and Zn (124.310 mg/kg) in pilues were significantly higher than in stipe. For comparing the accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in basidiospore, pilues and stipe, the powdery analysis and ICP-MS analysis were be done. The powdery analysis showed that the heavy metals could be accumulated in basidiospores with lower atomic percentage than in pilues or stipe. Specially, Zn, Hg, and Pb were significantly different among basidiospores, pilues and stipe. Moreover, the sawdust analysis showed that the accumulations of certain heavy metals in fruiting bodies were higher than in sadust. The atomic percentage and concentration of Cu were higher in fruiting bodies than in sawdust. In this study, the analyses results from EDX were compared with the results from ICP-MS. According to correlation analysis, the atomic percentage of As, Cd and Hg based on pieced analysis have positive relationship with the ICP-MS analysis, and the coefficient of As, Cd and Hg were 0.841, 0.672 and 0.497, respectively. The other sides, the atomic percentage of Zn, As, Cd and Pb based on powdery analysis have positive relationship with the ICP-MS analysis, and the coefficient of Zn, As, Cd and Pb were 0.039, 0.277, 0.037 and 0.080. Based on the results, the EDX has potential to detect the eight heavy metals in himematsutake rapidly, and the powdery analysis might better than pieced analysis.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/31994
其他識別: U0005-1508201201095200
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-1508201201095200
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