Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/33067
標題: 台灣北部海岸林環境保育功能與人工設施之影響研究
Study on the Environmental Conservation and the Influence of Artificial Facilities on the Coastal Windbreak in Northern Taiwan
作者: 游永清
Yu, Yung-Ching
關鍵字: 海岸林
wind speed reduction rate
環境應力
風速折減率
環境差異
environmental difference
environmental stress
coastal forest.
出版社: 水土保持學系所
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摘要: 臺灣地區現存海岸保安林帶因環境應力與人為干擾等因素造成林帶樹木之受損與枯死,進而影響保安林帶完整性。本研究以新北市淡水區1074號保安林與石門區1015號保安林為調查區域,藉由海岸保安林帶前、中、後不同區域遭受環境應力之差異性進行調查,探討林帶之環境保育效益,環境應力之調查項目包括風速、溫度、相對濕度、噪音、鹽霧量、飛砂量等。另依歷年正射影像圖中保安林林木基地面積變異進行分析,以做為人工設施對於林帶環境之影響依據。 調查研究結果如下: 1.在無植物生長與砂丘保護之樣線中,除地形較高處外,風速折減率隨距離高潮線之距離增加而有增加之趨勢,鹽霧量、飛砂量與噪音折減率亦有此趨勢存在,而在有保安林與砂丘保護之樣線則呈現保安林前效益最低,保安林內效益最高,保安林後次之之現象。 2.林木與微地形可影響環境應力之變化,在本研究中得出影響最大之環境應力因子為風速。 3.音量折減率最高發生在保安林內,當風速於 7 m/s以下時,音量折減率最高可達67%。 4.鹽霧量折減率最高發生在保安林內,當地形遮蔽與林木高度為5 m以下,風速於7 m/s以下時,於高度2 m以下之鹽霧量折減率最高可達75%,然而林木高度附近其鹽霧量將增加,折減率下降。 5.於正常乾砂狀況下,定砂植物生長點後飛砂量折減率可提高到68%,於有林木生長點後之飛砂量折減率更可達到98%以上。 6.當風速於7 m/s以下時,在砂丘保護與保安林帶完整之狀況下,在保護後5 m內即能使防風效益達到90%左右,且能維持至林帶結束,甚至能使林帶後之防風效益在25 m內仍能維持70%之防風效果。 7.當風速於7 m/s以下時,在地形高程高於前方砂丘之高度時,風速折減率約降為50%左右,且折減率仍因微地形持續抬升而持續下降,可見微地形為影響效益之重要因素之一。 8.本研究中得知,『堆砂籬』、『人工砂丘』與『圍牆』等人工設施對環境應力之作用具有正向之減低效果,而『涼亭』、『木棧道』則對環境應力之作用具有負面之增大作用,相關海岸之人工設施需慎重考量及進行規劃設計。
Owing to the factors of environmental stress and human disturbance on protection forests, vegetation in forests in Taiwan has been damaged and withered to death; the integrity of protection forests is further impacted. The protection forests No. 1074 in Tamsui District and No. 1015 in Shihmen District in New Taipei City are selected for the investigation. By investigating the differences caused by environmental stress in the front, middle, and back of the coastal protection forests, the efficiency of environmental protection of the forests is researched. The environmental stress tests contain wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, noise, salt spray, and windblown sand and so forth. Besides, analyzing the change of area of the protection forests according to the ortho-photo maps of past years serves as a basis of the influences of artificial facilities on the forests. The investigation results are as follows: 1.In the line with no protection of forests and sand hills, except for higher terrain, the reduction rate of wind speed has a tendency to increase with the distance of distance high-tide line increasing, and it is true of salt spray, windblown sand and the reduction rate of noisy. On the other hand, the line with protection forests and sand hills presents the lowest efficiency in the front of the forests, followed by it in the back of the forests. 2.Forest and terrain would affect the change of environmental stress. In this research, wind speed is the greatest environmental stress factor. 3.The highest reduction rate of volume occurs in the middle of the forests. When the wind speed is under 7m/s, the reduction rate of volume can reach 67%. 4.The highest reduction rate of salt spray occurs in the middle of the forests. When the altitude of terrain shelter and forests are lower than 5 meters and the wind speed is less than 7 m/s, the reduction rate of salt spray in the altitude lower than 2 meters could reach 75%. However, around the forest altitude, the salt spray will increase and the reduction rate will decrease. 5.It is shown that the reduction rate of windblown sand could be increased up to 68% after the growing point of sand stabilizing plants and the reduction rate could reach up to 98% after the growing point of herbaceous plants, under normal dry sand. 6.When the wind speed is less than 7 m/s, under the circumstances of the protection of sand hills and the integrity of protection forests, within 5 meters behind the protection, the windbreak efficiency could achieve 90% and the efficiency remains the same to the end of the forests. The efficiency is even as high as 70% within 25 meters. 7.When the wind speed is less than 7 m/s and the terrain is higher than the front sand hill, the reduction of wind speed would drop to around 50%. And the reduction rate will keep decreasing with the rising of the micro topography. It is perceived that micro topography is one of the essential factors in efficiency. 8.From the research, it is concerned that artificial facilities such as “sand-fixed hedges”, “artificial sand hills” and “walls” can positively reduce the environmental stress; on the contrary, “pavilions” and “wooden stairways” have negative effects. The coastal-related artificial facilities should be cautiously planned and designed.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/33067
其他識別: U0005-2408201209524200
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-2408201209524200
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