Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/33073
標題: 台灣降雨誘發崩塌之特性分析
The characteristic of rainfall-induced landslides in Taiwan
作者: 郭靜苓
KUO, Ching-Ling
關鍵字: 崩塌
landslide
坡度
冪次關係
slope
power law
出版社: 水土保持學系所
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摘要: 台灣位於板塊交界帶,由菲律賓海板塊及歐亞板塊擠壓隆起而成,因此具有山多平原少的現象,而隨著人口的成長,山坡地區土地利用也日益增加。因地處太平洋頻震帶,加上夏秋兩季颱風頻仍,由地震或降雨引發山坡地的土砂災害時有所聞,而近年來因著氣候異常,極端降雨事件增加,使得大規模崩塌事件頻傳。有鑑於此,本研究針對台灣北中南各選取一個集水區,分別為石門水庫集水區、大甲溪集水區及高屏溪集水區,並使用2004年敏督利颱風以及艾利颱風後數化的崩塌地圖層,統計崩塌地的面積、高程、坡度與地質等特性,進行規模、崩塌位置、崩塌頻率等方面的量化分析,期能藉由建立其中的相互關聯性,找出台灣崩塌事件的特性,以及在極端降雨事件影響下的變化情形。 本研究發現以崩塌的數量及面積來說大甲溪集水區的崩塌最為嚴重,甚至有1平方公里以上大規模崩塌地的出現,顯示在三個集水區當中,綜合地質及地形等因素,再加上九二一大地震的影響,大甲溪集水區易崩性最高,不需要太大的降雨量造便可造成不小的災害;統計三區發現,崩塌地位置皆以下邊坡居多,顯示台灣地區崩塌誘因仍以降雨為主,而崩塌坡度以30度至50度居多,可知地下水匯集與坡度中段交集區為主要崩塌來源區;2008年薔蜜颱風在高屏溪集水區造成的崩塌在經過2009年莫拉克颱風之後,大部分因著坡面水流匯集,使得許多舊有的小崩塌地合併擴大,只有少部分有縮小的現象,植生通常由崩塌地上緣向下生長,以草類為主。
Taiwan, due to being located at the border of the Philippines Plate and the Eurasian Plate and compressed by which, is with views of mountains around the island more than of plains. The percentage of utilization of mountainside is rising with the growing of population. Because of located in the Pacific seismic area and suffered from typhoons in summer and autumn frequently, the damages from soil and sand on mountainside resulted by earthquake and rain come continuously. The news of massive collapses, which were caused by the abnormal climate phenomenon and increasing rate of extreme rainfall, has swept over the headlines lately. Thus, we have selected each symbolic watershed in northern, midland and southern area of Taiwan in this research which are Shihmen Reservoir watershed, Ta-chia River watershed and Kaoping River watershed. We compile statistics of area, elevation, slope and geology for constructing mass analysis of the scales, positions and frequency. We anticipate discovering the features of landslides and the changing situations effected by extreme rainfall in Taiwan through setting up the connection. In this research, we have discovered that the worst landslides, in quantity and range, are in the watershed of DaJia River, and some of them are even larger than one square kilometer. The result represents that the places with the greatest landslide-prone susceptibility are around the watershed of DaJia River because of the specialties and terrains of the area, and the influences from ChiChi earthquake. Even small rain may cause disaster. We''ve also discovered that the landslides happened on the downhillside more often through analyzing collected data. The result suggests that the rain remains the major cause of landslides in Taiwan; especially on the mountains which are with the gradient among thirty to fifty degrees. We have figured out that the watershed of groundwater and smooth areas of mountains seem to be the main collapsing areas. The old small landslides have combined and broadened due to the gathering of water on the major areas of Kaoping River watershed after the strike from typhoon Morakot in 2009 which have been made by typhoon Jangmi in 2008. The restorations have initiated usually from the upper side of landslide to the down side and grass is in the greater part of vegetation, but the phenomenon is found in few areas.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/33073
其他識別: U0005-1308201221305900
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-1308201221305900
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