請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/33301
標題: 解剖教室的轉變與體制化:以十八世紀法國解剖教室為例的探討
Change and Institutionalization of Anatomic Amphitheater: A Study Focused on French Anatomic Amphitheaters in 18th Century
作者: 陳樂元
Chen, Yueh-yuan
關鍵字: Amphitheater of anatomy
解剖教室
Anatomic teaching
Cadaver
Administration
解剖教學
屍體
行政管理
出版社: 思與言雜誌社
摘要: From the renaissance of the anatomy in the end of the Middle Ages to the mid-eighteenth century, there were two types of anatomic amphitheater. One focused on the visual truth and the other focused on the tactile truth. The organization of anatomic teaching would vary substantially across different transmission media (visual/tactile) of anatomic knowledge. In the second half of the eighteenth century, a new type of anatomic amphitheater appeared. Besides integrating the existing visual or tactile types of anatomic amphitheaters, in this new amphitheater more emphasis was placed on the continuity of the anatomic teaching and the adequate supply mechanism of the anatomic raw materials (i.e. the body), which would inevitably lead to a new type of organization of anatomic teaching. Therefore, starting from the study of different types of the anatomic amphitheater, this article proceeds to address the relationship between the anatomic teaching and the administrative power. The types of organization of anatomic teaching should depend on the corresponding structures of anatomic amphitheaters. If the anatomic amphitheater is merely a place as the other ordinary lecturing theaters, the main managerial issue is only on the accommodation of large audience. However, if the anatomic amphitheater is a place in which intensively anatomic practice would be performed, then it also serves as a mechanism that supplies, consumes and preserves a large number of humans bodies. Therefore, the related managerial issues are more than the security problems confronted by the society. These issues involve the broader problem of the state's use of human body resources.
從中世紀末解剖學的復興以來一直到十八世紀中葉,基本上存在著兩種解剖教室的型態,一種是以視覺真理為主,另一種則是以觸覺真理為主。根據解剖學知識的傳授是以視覺或觸覺為主要媒介的不同,解剖教學的管理模式也會因此而有根本性的改變。而從十八世紀下半葉,我們可以發現一種全新型態的解剖教室的出現,它除了整合了既存的以視覺或觸覺為主的解剖教室型態,更強調解剖教學的連續性以及充足的解剖原料(即屍體)供給機制,而後者必然會導致新的解剖教學管理模式。因此,本文從研究解剖教室的型態著手來探求解剖教室與國家行政權之關係,不同的型態會有其相應的管理方式。如果解剖教室只是一個與其他劇場並無不同的劇場而已,其管理問題就只是在於解決如何管理大量的觀眾這一核心問題。然而如果解剖教室是一個供大量的學生練習解剖的場所,一個必須供應、保存且消耗大量的屍體的機制,其管理問題不再只是狹義的治安管理問題,而是涉及到國家對人體資源利用的管理問題。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/33301
ISSN: 0258-8412
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