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標題: 以數位航測法推估河川土砂量 -大甲溪馬鞍壩至天輪壩河段-
Estimation of Sediment Yield Using Digital Aerial Photogrammetry Method-Da-Chia River Course from Mar-An Dam to Tien-Loon Dam-
作者: 黃英華
Hwang, Ying-Hua
關鍵字: digital aerial photogrammetry
出版社: 水土保持學系所
摘要: 航空攝影測量技術的發展已相當成熟,本研究利用航測技術對大甲溪馬鞍壩至天輪壩間之河川區域進行攝影測量,由航照產生河川地形圖,建立河川區域數值地形模型,評估河川內砂石資源蘊藏量及探討河床因長期的水流產生之沖淤變化。並利用USLE土壤沖蝕、打荻氏及Takahashi平衡濃度等理論公式,計算研究區域內土砂量,以提供河段每年進行疏浚量體之參考。本研究並收集水利署2005年至2008年累積之疏浚量,以檢討大甲溪馬鞍壩至天輪壩河段,持續進行疏浚之可行性。 本研究利用2009年01月航拍產製之DEM、2005年11月航拍產製者以及1998年林班地相片基本圖數化成DEM資料以計算土砂量。其中,將2009年01月航拍產製之DEM資料與2005年11月產製者進行套疊分析,可知馬鞍壩至天輪壩間河床呈現沖刷狀態,其沖刷量約424萬m3(含人為疏浚);而2009年01月航拍產製DEM資料與1998年林班地相片基本圖數化5 m間距之DEM資料比較,得知馬鞍壩至天輪壩間之河床則尚呈淤積狀態,其淤積量約545萬m3。另外,利用USLE土壤沖蝕公式、打荻氏公式、Takahashi平衡濃度公式及Schoklitsch公式,來計算河道推移質輸砂量可得河道一年淤積之土砂量約120.86萬m3。
The technology of the digital aerial photogrammetry was very mature at the current stage. By using this technique, this study surveyed the sedimentation and the deposition behaviors of Da-Chia river from Mar-An dam at downstream to Tien-Loon dam at upstream. A digital terrain model of the river was generated based on aerial river photography. This study estimated the quantity of the stony material resources, explored the long-term variation of erosion and deposition of riverbed due to the flow current. In addition, the quantity of sediment on the riverbed was calculated by USLE soil erosion equation, Da-Di-Shih empirical formula and Takahashi equilibrium concentration formula. According to the collected data of sediment volume from dredge projects performed by Water Resource Agent in the duration of 2005 to 2008, the feasibility for dredging from the riverbed between Mar-An dam and Tien-Loon dam was investigated. In this study, the sediment yield was calculated by using Digital Elevation Model (DEM) transferred from digital aerial photos which were taken in, 1998, November 2005 and January 2009 in sequence. Meanwhile, it can be observed the riverbed between Mar-An dam and Tien-Loon Dam was in the situation of erosion as the DEM of January 2009 was overlapped with that of November 2005. The quantity of eroded sediment approximated 424104 m3 (included man-made dredge). On the contrary, comparing the DEM of January 2009 with that of 1998, it was found the riverbed between Mar-An dam and Tien-Loon Dam was in the situation of deposition. The quantity of deposited sediment was estimated about 545104 m3. Eventually, using USLE soil erosion equation, Da-Di-Shih empirical formula, Takahashi equilibrium concentration formula and Schoklitsch sediment transportation formula to calculate the sediment transportation, it was found that the annual sedimentation in riverbed was about 120.86104 m3.
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