Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/34345
標題: 穩定水流及生物廊道功能之魚骨型魚道試驗研究
The Fish-Bone-Type Fishway for the Flow Stability and Bio-diversity Corridor
作者: 洪正賢
Hung, Cheng-Shang
關鍵字: Fish-Bone-Type Fishway
魚骨型魚道試驗研究
出版社: 水土保持學系所
引用: 1、水利規劃試驗所(1998),「魚道規劃設計研討會講義」。 2、林務局(1992),「台灣省近期防砂壩現況調查報告」。 3、顧培森(1995),「高山地區防砂壩與生態維護」,林務局編印。 4、張明雄、林曜松(1998),「防砂壩對水生生物多樣性的影響」, http://contest.ks.edu.tw/~river/environment/recognize/thesis/thesis4.htm。 5、張世倉、李德旺、李訓煌(1998),「烏石坑溪防砂壩對河川生態的影響及魚道效用之評估」,中日溪流生態保育研討會論文集,pp.133-150。 6、段錦浩、薛礬文(2000),「水土保持對棲地生態改善之研究(二)」,現有防砂壩魚道之問題與相關研究,(行政院農業委員會主管試驗研究計劃)。 7、中村中六、廣瀨利雄(1996),「魚道的設計」, 山海堂 (日文)。 8、段錦浩(1997),「防砂壩魚道防止礫石阻塞之研究」,中華水土保持學報,28(1):69-73。 9、葉順裕(1998),「改良式魚道鋼板柵特性之研究」,國立中興大學水土保持學系碩士論文。 10、胡通哲(2001),「坡度對魚類在改良型舟通式魚道溯游影響之研究」,第十二屆水利工程研討會論文集,pp.F47-F54。 11、中村俊六、東信行 (1996),「魚道及降下對策之知識與設計」,日本河川整備中心. pp. 141-149. (日文,Gosset C., M. Larinier, J. P. Porcher, F. Travade. 法文原著)。 12、陳樹群、王順昌(2002)「魚骨型魚之水理及泥砂特性試驗研究」,中華水土保持學報,33(4):271-282。 13、胡通哲、張世倉、李訓煌(1999),「八寶圳階段式魚道之設計與試驗」,中華水土保持學報,30(1):25-32。 14、胡通哲、張世倉、葉明峰(2000),「防砂壩改良型舟通式魚道之試驗研究」,中華水土保持學報, 31(2):93-98。 15、胡通哲、陳鴻烈(2002),「仁澤一號防砂壩魚道現地改善之設計施工與評估」,台灣林業,28(2):19-23。 16、曾晴賢、李淑珠譯(1987),「魚道的設計指南及案例」,中國水產419:21-28。 17、何平合(2002),「臺灣溪流中的蝦兵蟹將」,科學發展352期。 18、翁煥廷、黃正義(1998),「運用渠道附著生物法去除放流水中氮化合物之研究」,國立台北科技大學土木與防災技術研究所碩士論文。 19、陳樹群、洪正賢、王順昌(2005),「魚骨型魚道排砂試驗特性研究」,第六屆海峽兩岸三地水土資源與生態環境學術討會論文集,第454-468頁,東華大學,花蓮。
摘要: In Taiwan, recent researches have developed several types of fishways. The Endemic Species Research Institute has been conducted experiment on indigenous fish with various types of fishways since 1998. It has been proved that the fish-bone-type fishways are suitable for the migration of all fish species in Taiwan. However, the water current tends to flow turbulently on the fish-bone-type fishways. Accordingly, in an attempt to stabilize the water current, to make fish migration easy, and to help shrimp to crawl over the check dams to upstream to breed, it is considered to add a porosity filtering on the main body of fishway (hereuinafter referred as improved fish-bone-type fishway). In an attempt to find out the best location of fish-bone-type fishways and their function of providing migration channel for aquatic animals, and to offer some referential statistics for the design of the check dams attached with fishways in Taiwan, this research aims to explore a way to improving the turbulent current condition on the fish-bone-type fishways and to discussr the possibilities of the migration for fish and crustaceans. The improved fish-bone-type fishway adopts three flow rates in the hydraulic experiment—0.016cms, 0.032cms, and 0.048cms. In the sediment transport test, the tested flow rates are 0.032cms and 0.048cms. Two average granule diameters of adding sediment are 9.27mm and 10.77mm. The total experimental time is 200 minutes, with 100 minutes for adding sediment and another 100 minutes for water cleaning. In the test of fish migration, the goal is to find out the migration rate of 30 Zacco Pachycephalus within 3 hours, with the flow rates at 0.016cms and 0.032cms. In the test of shrimp migration, the flow rate is 0.001cms with thin layer current. Several findings have been found in this research. In the aspect of hydraulic experiment, the water level in the improved fish-bone-type fishways is higher than that in the original one; however, the water flow in the former is less than that in the latter. This finding shows that porosity filtering can effectively improve the current condition. In the aspect of sediment test, sediment in the improved fish-bone-type fishways can reach to a balance of transporting in 30 minutes, the rate of sediment removal is above 97/%, and the residual sediment is below 3%. The test indicates that the adoption of porosity filtering has no effect on the rate of sediment removal. In the aspect of fish migration experiment, the migration rate of the tested Zacco Pachycephalus can reach over 73% during the experimental time, which is higher than that in the original fishways. The result suggests that the improved fish-bone-type fishway is more suitable for fish migration. In the aspect of shrimp migration test, the finding reports that shrimp would use the porosity filtering to crawl towards upstream when the flow rate is at 0.001cms, and do so on the bottom of the fishway when the flow is even less. With all the results, this research finds that the improved fish-bone-type fishways have great effects on the reduction of flow velocity, on the current stabilization, on the increase of sediment removal, and on the migration of fish and crustaceans. Moreover, the improved fish-bone-type fishways are more suitable to be applied to the check dams on the rivers in Taiwan
台灣近年來的研究發展已有許多型式的魚道型式被採用,如丹尼爾式、潛孔式、垂直閘式、導流壁式及改良型舟通式等,農委會特有生物研究保育中心自1998年起對台灣地區多種型式魚道進行原生魚種試驗研究,證實魚骨型魚道適用於台灣河川各種魚類溯流特性。但水流在魚骨型魚道中流況非常紊亂,故考慮在魚骨型魚道之主要支幹上加一多孔隙濾材(本文稱改良後魚骨型魚道),使水流較趨於穩定,水中魚類更易於上溯外,更讓蝦類藉以攀爬至防砂壩上游繁殖。 本研究係為改善魚骨型魚道中紊亂之流況,並對水中魚類、甲殼類生物溯游可行性之探討,以期達到魚骨型魚道的最佳設計配置及生物通道之功能,並提供台灣防砂壩附設魚道設計布置之參考依據。改善後魚骨型魚道在水理試驗方面,採用三種流量0.016cms、0.032cms及0.048cms,排砂試驗方面,試驗流量為0.032cms及0.048cms,加砂之平均粒徑為9.27mm及10.77mm兩種,試驗時間為加砂100分鐘後,再清水沖刷100分鐘,共200分鐘。魚類上溯試驗方面,試驗流量為0.016cms及0.032cms,施放30之粗首鱲,觀測其三小時內上溯率。溪蝦上溯試驗方面,則採流量0.001 cms及薄層水流,觀測其上溯情形。 試驗結果顯示,在水理試驗方面,改良後魚骨型魚道水位皆比原魚骨型魚道高,流量則比原魚骨型魚道低,顯示多孔隙濾材能有效改善流況;排砂試驗方面,泥砂約於時間第30分鐘即達到輸砂平衡,排砂率在97%以上,殘留於魚道之泥砂為3%以下,證明增設多孔隙濾材並不影響其排砂率;魚類上溯試驗方面,粗首鱲於試驗時間內,上溯率達73%以上,皆比原魚骨型魚道為高,顯示改良後魚骨型魚道更適於魚類上溯;而溪蝦上溯試驗方面,發現溪蝦於流量0.001時,藉由多孔隙濾材向魚道上游攀爬,再由量更小的情況下,溪蝦便由魚道渠底向上游攀爬。綜合上述結果,顯示改良後魚骨型魚道無論在降低流速、穩定水流、優質排砂特性及魚類蝦類上溯方面,均有良好的效果,更適用於台灣河川防砂壩上。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/34345
其他識別: U0005-0908200615102900
Appears in Collections:水土保持學系

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