Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/34487
標題: 坡度影響地表逕流與土壤沖蝕之探討
Effect of Slope on Surface Runoff and Soil Erosion
作者: 蘇煒哲
Su, Wei-Che
關鍵字: Rainfall simulator
人工降雨模擬機
USLE
Three-D laser scanner
Red soil
Yellow soil
通用土壤流失公式
三維雷射掃瞄
紅壤
黃壤
出版社: 水土保持學系所
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摘要: 過去量測土壤流失量之方式多採用直接收集逕流及沖積物來量測沖蝕量,或利用沖蝕針的間接量測方式推求出土壤流失量,而兩者對於土壤沖蝕與堆積的分佈情形均無法得知。因此本研究採用無接觸的三維雷射掃瞄與量測值進行比較,以室內人工降雨試驗探討不同坡度之土壤沖蝕及逕流情形,藉此能更精確得知試驗樣區內部沖蝕與堆積情形,也能更精確計算出土壤流失量。 本研究之結果顯示,土壤流失量有隨著坡度上升而增加之趨勢,而在坡度15%以後有急速增加之現象。在總沖蝕量方面,因紅壤團粒構造較為穩定,故其沖蝕量比黃壤為小。在通用土壤流失公式推估值方面,因本研究坡長僅有1m但實驗坡度高達55%,在兩者交互影響下造成所計算之值在坡度15%以後會高估,因此通用土壤流失公式在本實驗中僅供參考。利用三維雷射掃瞄計算土壤流失量與量測值比較發現,掃瞄值因可計算側向飛濺沖蝕量,因此所得之值大於量測值,且其計算結果屬於合理範圍,證明此方法確實可行且快速。
The soil loss of slope profile was measured by collecting runoff and sediment or using the erosion pins to calculate soil loss usually. However, these measurements can not give the spatial information of erosion on slope (point values of detachment/deposition). In recent year, Three-D laser scanner has been applied to measure the surface variation before and after soil erosion. In the study, the traditional method and Three-D laser scanner method were used to measure the soil loss by rainfall simulator in the laboratory. The soil losses of different slope measured by different method were compared. We hope to fine an ideal method to measure soil loss accurately and get the information of soil detachment and deposition on slopeland. The results showed that the soil loss was increase with slope, especially above slope 15%. The red soil structure is more stable than the yellow soil, so the soil loss is smaller than yellow soil. The soil loss in this experiment was also estimated by Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The estimated soil loss amount is higher than the measured, which was due to our plot length is less than the USLE standard plot, and the slope is steeper than the standard plot. The erosion amount caused by splash can be detected by Three-D scanner method. To compare measure and estimate value, we find out the Three-D laser scanner method is suitable for measuring soil loss on slopeland.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/34487
其他識別: U0005-0108200715191700
Appears in Collections:水土保持學系

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